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NICHE. FUNDAMENTAL NICHE – is the multidimensional space where a species could occur in the absence of interspeific competition and predation. REALIZED NICHE – is the space where the species is actually found. (This is usually smaller than the fundamental niche due to competition and

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NICHE

FUNDAMENTAL NICHE – is the multidimensional

space where a species could occur in the absence

of interspeific competition and predation

REALIZED NICHE – is the space where the species

is actually found. (This is usually smaller than the

fundamental niche due to competition and

predation).


NICHE PARTIONING IN AFRICAN UNGULATES


1. PARTIONING BY SOIL TYPE


Thompson’s gazelle


Grant’s gazelle


Burchell’s Zebra


Wildebeest


Kongoni

Topi


Waterbuck


African buffalo


2. PARTIONING BY FOOD TYPE


Soil type

Food type

Moisture gradient


3. PARTIONING BY MOISTURE GRADIENT


Steinbuck


Kongoni


Dikdik


Topi


Duiker


Oribi


Reedbuck


EUROPEAN SEEDEATING FINCHES

Redpoll

Note size of bill

Linnet

Greenfinch

Hawfinch


Niche

Partitioning


Niche

partitioning

of African

mammals

along a

density

gradient from

open to closed

vegetation


Computer calculated overlap in niche from random

associations


North

America

Observed overlap

in diet niche of desert

lizards

Africa

Australia


GAUSE’S PRINCIPLE orPRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

  • No two species can live in the same niche

  • 2. If two species have the same niche, one will

  • exclude the other


A

B

Apparent Niche overlap

may not be real when all

dimensions are considered

Overlap occurs in each

parameter (A,B) when

considered alone, and may

occur when considered

together (C) but not

necessarily (D)

C

D


GAUSE’S PRINCIPLE orPRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

  • No two species can live in the same niche

  • 2. If two species have the same niche, one will

  • exclude the other

  • PROBLEMS

  • We can never demonstrate that two niches are

  • the same

  • 2. This principle is a tautology (circular)


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