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NICHE. FUNDAMENTAL NICHE – is the multidimensional space where a species could occur in the absence of interspeific competition and predation. REALIZED NICHE – is the space where the species is actually found. (This is usually smaller than the fundamental niche due to competition and

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NICHE

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Niche l.jpg

NICHE

FUNDAMENTAL NICHE – is the multidimensional

space where a species could occur in the absence

of interspeific competition and predation

REALIZED NICHE – is the space where the species

is actually found. (This is usually smaller than the

fundamental niche due to competition and

predation).


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NICHE PARTIONING IN AFRICAN UNGULATES


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1. PARTIONING BY SOIL TYPE


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Thompson’s gazelle


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Grant’s gazelle


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Burchell’s Zebra


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Wildebeest


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Kongoni

Topi


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Waterbuck


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African buffalo


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2. PARTIONING BY FOOD TYPE


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Soil type

Food type

Moisture gradient


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3. PARTIONING BY MOISTURE GRADIENT


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Steinbuck


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Kongoni


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Dikdik


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Topi


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Duiker


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Oribi


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Reedbuck


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EUROPEAN SEEDEATING FINCHES

Redpoll

Note size of bill

Linnet

Greenfinch

Hawfinch


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Niche

Partitioning


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Niche

partitioning

of African

mammals

along a

density

gradient from

open to closed

vegetation


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Computer calculated overlap in niche from random

associations


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North

America

Observed overlap

in diet niche of desert

lizards

Africa

Australia


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GAUSE’S PRINCIPLE orPRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

  • No two species can live in the same niche

  • 2. If two species have the same niche, one will

  • exclude the other


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A

B

Apparent Niche overlap

may not be real when all

dimensions are considered

Overlap occurs in each

parameter (A,B) when

considered alone, and may

occur when considered

together (C) but not

necessarily (D)

C

D


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GAUSE’S PRINCIPLE orPRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

  • No two species can live in the same niche

  • 2. If two species have the same niche, one will

  • exclude the other

  • PROBLEMS

  • We can never demonstrate that two niches are

  • the same

  • 2. This principle is a tautology (circular)


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