Assessing the war on drugs abroad
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Assessing the War on Drugs Abroad. Goals Achieved?. Goals for the War Abroad?. Increase eradication Increase interdiction Extradite drug criminals to US Attack money laundering Alternative Development Lessen corruption and increase law enforcement abroad

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Goals for the War Abroad?

  • Increase eradication

  • Increase interdiction

  • Extradite drug criminals to US

  • Attack money laundering

  • Alternative Development

  • Lessen corruption and increase law enforcement abroad

  • Disrupt the supply of drugs coming into US - Make drug trafficking unprofitable

  • Decrease purity; increase price

    Decrease use as a result of all of the above












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Extradition

  • Bolivia – no one was sought

  • Colombia – Overall, since December 1987, 647 individuals have been extradited to the United States, 581 since President Uribe assumed office in 2002.

  • Mexico –In 2007, Mexican authorities extradited 83 fugitives to the United States - 30 of those for narcotics trafficking and related money laundering offenses

  • Peru – extradition agreement signed in 2003; 5 pending (3 related to narcotics)


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Afghanistan & Extradition

  • During 2007, two drug traffickers “volunteered to be transported from Afghanistan to stand trial in the United States.”

  • The first, Mohammad Essa, was a key heroin distributor for the Haji Baz Mohammad network in the US. Essa had fled the US … In December 2006, he was apprehended in Kandahar Province by the U.S. military, during a battle with insurgents, and he was voluntarily transferred to the United States in April 2007.

  • The second, Khan Mohammad, was arrested in Nangarhar Province in October 2006. He was indicted for selling opium and heroin to CNPA/NIU informants, knowing that the drugs were destined for the United States. He agreed to return to the United States for trial and was transferred to U.S. authorities in November 2007 and will stand trial in Washington, D.C.



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Current Assessments by US

  • Afghanistan – “Afghanistan has made progress over the past year in developing its overall AML/CTF regime. … However, much work remains to be done.”

  • Colombia – “Comprehensive anti-money laundering regulations have allowed the government to … combat financial crimes and money laundering. Nevertheless, the laundering of money from Colombia’s lucrative cocaine and heroin trade continues to penetrate its economy and affect its financial institutions. … a complex legal system and limited resources for anti-money laundering programs constrain improvements.”

  • Mexico – “Mexico …serves as one of the major conduits for proceeds from illegal drug sales leaving the United States. The illicit drug trade is the principal source of funds laundered through the Mexican financial system. [It] remains one of the most challenging money laundering jurisdictions for the United States, especially with regard to the investigation of money laundering activities involving the cross-border smuggling of bulk currency derived from drug transactions and other transnational criminal activity.

  • Panama – “has a comprehensive legal framework to detect, prevent, and combat money laundering and terrorist financing, and cooperates with the US. … nonetheless remains vulnerable to money laundering”



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UN Assessment

  • A quarter of a century on, alternative development donors and practitioners still underestimate the socio-cultural, economic, political and environmental milieu in which alternative development operates, which invites unrealistic expectations and projects set to fail.

  • It was known that farmers of illicit crops receiving alternative development had been few: 23% in the Andes, 5% in Asia.


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Afghanistan

  • The challenges of implementing the alternative development program are daunting. Economic growth in Afghanistan is hampered by massive infrastructure deficits (especially lack of electric power), a shortage of skilled human capital, insecurity, corruption, weak legal and regulatory regimes, and poor access to seaports, among other factors. The USG and other donors are addressing these structural problems, and much progress has been made, but given Afghanistan's incredibly low starting point, years of work remain in order to build a modern and regionally competitive Afghan economy.

  • Lack of security also makes program implementation, particularly in the south, difficult, slow, and expensive. Twelve persons associated with the alternative development program were killed during the program's implementation from 2005-6.





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Colombia

  • As a matter of policy, the GOC does not encourage or facilitate the illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions.

  • Concerns remain over the corrupt influences of criminal organizations. On August 31, the CNP arrested 50 alleged members of the emerging narco-trafficking gang “Los 40,” including 18 active duty police, two members of the Colombian Directorate of Administrative Security (DAS), a Colombian marine, and a member of the Prosecutor General’s investigative unit (CTI). The breakup of “Los 40” followed revelations of infiltrations of the Colombian Army by drug cartels and the FARC, which were subsequently discovered and broken up. From June through August, the GOC arrested about a dozen public forces members and suspended more than 20 pending further investigation of possible involvement with the Norte de Valle drug cartel.

  • Separately, several members of the GOC were found to have supported right-wing paramilitary groups. Called the “parapolitical” scandal, one congressman and two governors have been sentenced while two former mayors remain fugitives. Aggressive investigations on the part of the GOC have led to additional cases against 53 Congressmen, 19 mayors, and 10 governors. Both the USG supported Supreme Court investigative unit and a special unit of 11 investigators from the Prosecutor General’s office are continuing their investigations.


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Mexico

  • As a matter of policy, the GOM does not encourage nor facilitate the illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or any other controlled substances, nor the laundering of money derived from illicit drug transactions.

  • During 2007, the Calderon Administration strictly targeted corruption within the federal government.

  • Each year, the underlying causes of corruption diminish, as better pay and benefits are provided, better selection criteria are employed for new employees, and more modern investigative techniques are applied.

  • In 2007, the Secretariat of Public Administration (SFP, which investigates corruption across the federal government) reported that 6,253 inquiries and investigations into possible malfeasance or misconduct by 4,877 federal employees resulted in the dismissal of 410 federal employees, the dismissal of an additional 1,023 employees with re-employment restrictions, the suspension of 1,664 employees, 2,173 reprimands and the issuance of 9 letters of warning. In addition, 974 economic sanctions were imposed which resulted in more than $273 million in fines and reimbursements into the Treasury.

  • Mexico began to restructure the federal police into an entity that is more effective and trustworthy. In June, he replaced 284 Federal Preventative Police (PFP) and Federal Investigative Agency (AFI) commanders, including all 34 regional PFP coordinators. SSP will soon have the means to vet its entire force, as well as many units drawn from state and municipal police, to stem corruption.


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Afghanistan

  • Although the illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances and the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions are illegal, many Afghan government officials are believed to profit from the drug trade.

  • Narcotics-related corruption is particularly pervasive at the provincial and district levels of government.

  • Corrupt practices range from facilitating drug activities to benefiting from revenue streams that the drug trade produces.




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Evidence from UK

  • The profit margins for major traffickers of heroin into Britain are so high they outstrip luxury goods companies such as Louis Vuitton and Gucci

  • Traffickers enjoy such high profits that seizure rates of 60-80% are needed to have any serious impact on the flow of drugs into Britain but nothing greater than 20% has been achieved.






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Have the Goals Been Achieved?The View from the Government


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Andean Counterdrug Initiative Assessment

  • Does the program (including program partners) achieve its annual performance goals? SMALL EXTENT 9% (out of a possible 20%)

  • Explanation: This question received a "Small Extent," because in 2003, the most recent year for which data is available, INL met its target for reducing the number of hectares under coca cultivation from 205,450 hectares in 2002 to 173,000 hectares in 2003. Data for other annual goals does not support a rating higher than "Small Extent.“

  • Overall - Program Results/Accountability 34% (out of 1005)


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International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Programs, Western Hemisphere Assessment

  • Does the program (including program partners) achieve its annual performance goals? SMALL EXTENT 9% (out of 20%)

  • Explanation: INL developed three new annual measures, one of which shows mixed results, one shows no results (due to lack of historical data) and one shows negative results. Outside of these measures, the BPP, MPPs, and INCSR demonstrate achievements in reaching other annual goals. While aerial eradication is a new measure, INL WHA has made considerable progress towards improving the infrastructure to effectively eradicate. Mexican law enforcement agencies continue to make record numbers of arrests.

  • Overall Program Results/Accountability 33%


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International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Programs, South Asia Assessment

  • Does the program (including program partners) achieve its annual performance goals? LARGE EXTENT 17% (out of 20%)

  • Explanation:Achievement of annual goals has been mixed. Between 2004 and 2005, opium poppy cultivation in Pakistan declined by approximately 58%, from 7,571 hectares to 3,147 hectares, well on its way to falling under 1,000 hectares in 2008 and achieving the program's long-term goal of Pakistan's removal from the List of Major Drug Producing Nations. However, specific eradication benchmarks for previous years had not been set and results have been substantially below capabilities. This is disappointing in light of the resources dedicated. The civilian police training in Afghanistan resulted in an increase in the size of the new police force in Afghanistan to 55,000 officers trained. The program will continue to maintain the police force at the levels deemed necessary to provide effective law enforcement to the people of Afghanistan while achieving the long term goal of making the police force "Fully Capable" of conducting independent law enforcement operations.

  • Overall Program Results/Accountability 25%


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