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The Cold War Abroad. Vs. The United States. The Soviet Union. Post World War II Plans. Yalta Meeting (Feb. 1945): • European nations to be democratic, United Nations created. Post World War II Plans. Potsdam conference (July 1945): • Germany divided into 4 zones

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The Cold War Abroad

Vs.

The United States

The Soviet Union


Post World War II Plans

  • Yalta Meeting (Feb. 1945):

    • European nations to be democratic,

    United Nations created


Post World War II Plans

  • Potsdam conference (July 1945):

    • Germany divided into 4 zones

    (USA, S.U., G.B., France)


Iron Curtain

  • Stalin wanted

    barrier around

    S.U.

  • Eastern European

    nations

    communist,

    controlled

    by Soviets

    “Satellite states”


“From Stettin in the North to Trieste in the south, an iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

Winston Churchill to Americans in Speech


Containment policy
Containment Policy iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • U.S. foreign policy that sought to prevent the spread of Soviet communism

George Kennan –

creator of the

Containment policy

Truman supported with

Truman Doctrine!


Truman Doctrine (1947) iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • Response to communist takeover attempt

    in Greece

  • Truman gives economic aid to countries fighting

    communism

  • $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey

Controversial example of containment


Marshall Plan (1948-1951) iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • Europe needed to be rebuilt

    after WWII

London, England

Dresden, Germany


Marshall Plan (1948-1951) iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • Sec. of State George Marshall--give friendly aid

  • economic recovery was necessary for world peace

West German

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The free train

of the Marshall

Plan


Marshall iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

Plan

$12.5

billion


Marshall Plan (1948-1951) iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • S.U. and Eastern countries refuse aid


Berlin Airlift (1948-1949) iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • Berlin also divided into 4 zones

  • Soviet zone weak, others prospered and cooperated


Marshall plan and west berlin
Marshall Plan and West Berlin iron curtain has descended over Europe.”


Berlin Airlift (1948-1949) iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • East Berliners could see difference and left

  • Stalin blockaded West Berlin to stop this

Soviets closed Berlin’s railway lines, canals, roads. W. Berlin had 36 days of supplies.


Berlin Airlift (1948-1949) iron curtain has descended over Europe.”

  • Allies airlift supplies until blockade ended

Lasted 11

months!

“Operation

Vittles”


Every ten minutes a plane took off with supplies for West Berlin.

327 days 277,000 flights 2.5 million tons of supplies


NATO (1949) and Warsaw Pact Berlin.

  • defensive military alliance created

  • called North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • Warsaw Pact created in response (S.U.and E. Europe)


Nuclear Arms Race Berlin.

  • 1949--Soviet Union achieves A-bomb

Russian Scientist

Kurchatov

“Joe -1” Russian A-bomb


Nuclear Arms Race Berlin.

  • U.S. quadruples defense spending

  • 1952--U.S. invents Hydrogen "super" bomb

H-Bomb

Test

Fireball 3 miles

18 mths. later

Soviets have it


New leaders
New Leaders Berlin.

  • 1952 Eisenhower elected

  • 1953 Stalin dies; Nikita Kruschev takes over

  • Nuclear deterrence begins (don’t want WWIII)

Eisenhower Kruschev


Metacognition Statement: Berlin.

I know that I know something about Cold War events.

First,

In addition,

Finally,

Now you know something that I know about Cold War events.


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