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Chapter 3: The CELL. Cell Anatomy Plasma Membrane and Function Cell Organelles and Function. Cell Theory. Hooke in 1663, observed cork (plant): named the cell Pasteur’s work with bacteria ~ 1860 disproved idea of spontaneous generation (living things arise from nonliving matter).

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Chapter 3 the cell l.jpg
Chapter 3: The CELL

  • Cell Anatomy

  • Plasma Membrane and Function

  • Cell Organelles and Function


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Cell Theory

  • Hooke in 1663, observed cork (plant): named the cell

  • Pasteur’s work with bacteria ~ 1860 disproved idea of spontaneous generation (living things arise from nonliving matter)




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Cell Anatomy

  • Cell Anatomy

  • Plasma Membrane

  • Cytoplasm- cytosol and organelles

  • Organelles (small organs)


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Cell Size:Limitations of cell size


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Plasma Membrane

  • Fluid mosaic, protein icebergs in a sea of fat.

    • motion of these molecules creates the benefit of self repair

  • Selective Permeability

    • GO: Lipid solubility, no charge, small size

    • STOP: Charge, large size

  • Fat

    • Phospholipid Bilayer

      • Cholesterol, glycolipids

    • hydrophilic heads (phosphate) on each side

    • hydrophobic tails in the center

  • Proteins

    • Transmembrane and peripheral

    • Glycoproteins- receptors are the cell’s ID

    • Protein channels: transport large things



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Celia

Specialized Cells

Microvilli

  • Microvilli- extensions of plasma membrane

  • Cilia At Cell Surface

  • Flagellum is a long whip like structure that is identical to that of a cilium

    • Only functional flagellum in humans is the _________

Celia


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A LAW OF NATURE

  • Nature likes equality

  • A solution is composed of a solvent and solute

    • An example would be water and salt respectively

  • Concentration Gradient: A solution or solute moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

  • HIGH TO LOW is called going with (or down) the concentration gradient and requires no energy

  • To go against (or up) the concentration gradient requires lots of energy (Because it is against nature)


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Membrane Physiology

  • Nerve cells look like an anteater called an Aardvark

  • The electrical charge outside of the nerve cell at resting is _________

  • As permeability changes that polarity of the plasma membrane shifts form _____ on the inside to _______ on the outside

  • Our nerves work using action potentials that are created bythe SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP

    • Cell has a NaCK for keeping Na+ out, K+ in

      • NaCK = Na is outside the Cell and K is inside

  • Homework: Why is the cell + on the outside and – on the inside when we use Na+ and K+?


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Effects of Different Solutions on Cells.

  • Tonicity – the ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure

  • HYPOTONIC solution- causes cells to swell (a hippO swells in water)

    • Example- distilled water

  • HYPERTONIC solution- causes cells to shrink

    • Example- sea water

  • ISOTONIC solution- the cell is not effected

    • Example- Saline solution


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Effects of Tonicity on RBCs

_____can cause ____ ____Tonic Solution Cell going into ___


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Facilitated Diffusion

  • Carrier-mediated, passive transport of solute across membrane down its concentration gradient

  • No energy needed, Why?


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Movement Across the Membrane

  • VESICULAR TRANSPORT

    • ENdocytosis (INto Cell)

      • Phagocytosis, cell eating

      • Pinocytosis, cell drinking

      • Receptor- Mediated Endocytosis

    • EXocytosis (EXit Cell)


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Movement Across the Membrane

PASSIVE.

Without energy

With the concentration gradient

SIMPLE DIFFUSION.

OSMOSIS.

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

ACTIVE.

With energy

Against the concentration gradient

SODIUM PUMP


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Phagocytosis

Keeps tissues free of debris and infectious microorganisms.




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ORGANELLES in one word.

  • Cytoskeleton- scaffolding

  • Centrioles- cell division

  • Rough ER = protein production

  • Smooth ER = fat production

  • Golgi Complex: packaging

  • Lysosomes- garbage collectors

  • Mitochondria- Mighty! ATP production

  • Nucleus: Chromosomes

  • Nucleoli: r-RNA (ribosomes) assembly


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