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The Piano in 19th Century America The Music Conservatory & 19th Century Piano Music none in 1858 when John Knowles Paine left for Berlin

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The Piano in 19th Century America

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The Piano in 19th Century America


The Music Conservatory

&

19th Century Piano Music

  • none in 1858 when John Knowles Paine left for Berlin

  • Three of the earliest still existOberlin Conservatory (1865) Oberlin, OHNew England Conservatory (1867) Boston,MACincinnati Conservatory (1867) Cincinnati, OH


Oberlin

  • The Oberlin College Conservatory of Music, founded in 1865, is the nation's oldest continuously operating conservatory, and the only major music school in the country linked with a preeminent liberal arts college. Since its founding, the Conservatory has continued its proud tradition of "firsts."Tuition: $27,880; Room/Board: $6,830; Activity Fee: $170; Total: $34,880

  • 1892 - America's first full-time chair in music history and appreciation

  • 1921 - Established America's first four-year college degree program in music education

  • 1958 - Introduced the Suzuki method of string pedagogy to the United States

  • 1969 - Pioneered a program in electronic music

  • 1988 - Created the American Soviet Youth Orchestra, an ensemble of 100 young musicians from the U.S. and the former Soviet Union that was the first arts exchange produced jointly by the two countries

  • 1989 - The Otto B. Schoepfle Vocal Arts Laboratory is the first of its kind to be incorporated into a program of vocal instruction in the U.S.


Cincinnati

  • Tuition $16578

  • R&B 2556


New England Conservatory

  • Recognized nationally and internationally as a leader among music schools, New England Conservatory of Music, the only music school in America to be designated a National Historic Landmark, was founded in 1867.

  • The New England Conservatory of Music presents more than 600 free concerts each year in New England Conservatory's Jordan Hall and throughout New England. The college program instructs more than 775 undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral music students from around the world, and has a faculty of 225 artist-teachers and scholars

  • Tuition: (2001-2002) $21,550

  • Room and Board: (2001-2002) $9,400


The Conservatory

  • conservatorio - Italian 16th century - training orphans and needy children for duty in courts or municipal bands and choirs

  • Conservatorio dell’Ospedale della Pieta in Venice (Vivaldi)

  • Conservatoire de Musique (1795) Paris


The National Conservatory

  • The National Conservatory of Music (1885)

  • founded by Jeanette Thurber

  • intended for black children and children of recent immigrants

  • faculty included: Horatio Parker and Henry T. Finck

  • students active as composers included Harry T. Burleigh, Will Marion Cook, Edwin Franko Goldman

  • conservatory was directed by Antonin Dvorak from 1892-1895


Player- Composers

  • Lowell Mason (1792-1872)

  • Isaac B. Woodbury (1819-1858)

  • Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)

  • Ernest Guiraud (1837-1892)


The Conservative Players

  • Joachim Raff (1822-1882) teacher of MacDowell

  • Josef Rheinberger (1839-1901) teacher of Henry Holden Huss, Horatio Parker and Arthur Whiting


Composers of the

Second New England School

  • George W. Chadwick

  • Horatio Parker

  • Henry Hadley

  • Ethelbert Nevin

  • Amy Marcy Cheny (Mrs H.H.A. Beach)

  • Edward MacDowell


Manufacture

  • The piano itself was invented by Bartolommeo Cristofori in Italy in the year 1709.

  • A double-escapement was introduced by Sebastien Erard in 1821

  • Apprenticeship

  • Earliest instrument makers in America were piano makers

  • Special materials,equipment and expertise

  • Leading edge of the modern instrument manufacture

  • 1st piano recital in the world was in London in 1768

  • 1st piano made in America was by John Harris of Boston in 1769


The Piano

  • Boston and Philadelphia were the first centers of piano building

  • The full cast iron frams was Introduced by Alphaeus Babcock in 1830 as well as cross stringing which allowed the strings to fan out over a larger section of the soundboard

    • John Quincy Adams and his wife, Louisa Catherine, were great devotees of music, and often sang ballads and arias together. Louisa played the White House American-made Babcock piano, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution.

  • American piano makers were competing with those of Europe

  • Steinway (1853) won grand prize at the Paris Exposition in 1867

  • Jonas Chickering (1823) won the gold medal at the Great Exhibition in London in 1851


The Piano

  • The piano spanned the styles of the century

  • The piano was THE instrument of the living room

  • The great years of the piano in the home were the 1920s

  • The piano was the instrument of the concert hall

  • The piano was the instrument of the dance hall and honky-tonk

  • The piano was sized according to its use:

    • The upright, the spinet, the baby grand


The Piano

  • The upright was invented by Hawkins of Philadelphia in 1800

  • The Kimball Company of Chicago built the greatest number of pianos by any maker in the world

  • Changes to the piano in the last century include

    • Tuning, action, methods of manufacture

  • The developments to the piano include

    • The player piano

    • The orchestration

    • The reproducing piano


Examples for your listening pleasure

  • The Baldwin Piano (USA)

    • “Doo-Dah Variations by Earl WildChesky CD98

  • The Steinway Piano (USA)

    • “Pianoagogo” by William AlbrightCRI CD 674


1st President - George Washington - Longman & Broderip Harpsichord; Schoen & Vinsen Pianoforte 

2nd President - John Adams - Currier & Co. 

3rd President - Thomas Jefferson - Astor Pianoforte 

4th President - James Madison - Square Grand (name destroyed by fire) 

5th President - James Monroe - Astor Piano

6th President - John Quincy Adams - Currier & Co. 

7th President - Andrew Jackson - T. Gilbert & Co. Square Piano 

8th President - Martin Van Buren - Hallet & Cumston Square Piano 

9th President - William Henry Harrison - Haines Brothers 

10th President - John Tyler - Thomas Tomkinson Upright Piano 

11th President - James Knox Polk - Astor & Harwood Square Piano 

12th President - Zachary Taylor - name unknown 

13th President - Millard Fillmore - name unknown 

14th President - Franklin Pierce - Chickering Square Piano 

15th President - James Buchanan - Chickering Grand Piano 

16th President - Abraham Lincoln - Chickering Square Piano & Chickering Upright 

17th President - Andrew Johnson - Steinway & Sons Square Piano 

18th President - Ulysses S. Grant - Melodeon 

19th President - Rutherford B. Hayes - Bradbury Upright & Harpsichord (name destroyed by fire) 

20th President - James A. Garfield - Hallet & Davis Upright 

21st President - Chester A. Arthur - Piano cannot be located. 

22nd President - Grover Cleavland - Combination Piano & Harpsichord (name destroyed by fire) 

23rd President - Benjamin Harrison - J. & C. Fischer Upright Piano, Haines Brothers Square 

24th President - Grover Cleveland - (same as above) 

25th President - William McKinley - A. H. Gale Co. Square Piano 

26th President - Theodore Roosevelt - Chickering Upright, Steinway Grand Piano 

27th President - William Howard Taft - Baldwin Grand Piano 

28th President - Woodrow Wilson - Ernst Rosenkranst Square Piano, Knabe Grand 

29th President - Warren G. Harding - A. B. Chase Electric Player Piano 

30th President - Calvin Coolidge - Sohmer Upright Piano 

Presidential Personal Pianos


31st President - Herbert Hoover - Knabe Grand & A. B. Chase Grand 

32nd President - Franklin D. Roosevelt - Hardman Grand 

33rd President - Harry S. Truman - Steinway Grand, Baldwin Grand & Steinway Upright 

34th President - Dwight D. Eisenhower - Hallet & Cumston Upright 

35th President - John F. Kennedy - Ivers & Pond Grand Piano 

36th President - Lyndon B. Johnson - Style L. Steinway, Knabe Console 

37th President - Richard M. Nixon - Geo. P. Bent Upright, Baldwin Vertical 

38th President - Gerald Ford - No personal piano 

39th President - James (Jimmy) Carter - Ludden & Bates 

40th President - Ronald Reagan - Steinway Grand 

41st President - George Bush - Did not own personal piano. 

42nd President - William (Bill) Clinton - Baldwin Grand in the Governor's Mansion. 

Presidential Personal Pianos


A Native Born American Pianist and ComposerVirtuoso


Gottschalk and the Piano

  • Louis Moreau GottschalkNew Orleans , May 8, 1829 - Tijuca, Brazil, December 18, 1869

  • Father, Edward, was an English stockbroker; Mother, Almee de Brusle, an aristocratic French Creole

  • First child of a large family

  • He had a slave nurse named Sally who introduced him to Negro folk music

  • Playing piano at age 3


Gottschalk and the Piano

  • Paris at age 12

    • “I definitely expect that in two years or perhaps less I shall be earning a living on my own.”

  • Rejected by the Conservatory because he was American (anyone from America was barbarian)

  • Studied piano privately

  • Fellow students were Saint-Saens and Bizet


Gottschalk and the Piano

  • Chopin attended his first public recital in 1845

    • Frédéric Chopin predicted that Gottschalk would soon become one of the foremost pianists of the century

  • Berlioz became his champion and long-time friend

  • Gottschalk became known from Madrid to Moscow

  • Age 22 he became the musical idol of Spain

  • Returned to America after very successful tours in France, Switzerland and Spain

  • Became known in America as the “King of Pianists”


Gottschalk and the Piano

  • 1854 father went bankrupt and both parents died

  • On his deathbed, Edward blessed Louis in 7 languages

  • Wandered around the Antilles for 6 years doing nothing but giving concerts wherever he found a piano

  • Identified with the Union cause

  • 1862 contract brought him back to the U.S.

  • Played 1100 recitals in three years

    • “Arrived half past eight at the hotel, took in a hurry a cup of bad tea, and away to business. One herring for dinner! nine hours on the train! and, in spite of everything, five hundred persons who have paid that you may give them two hours of poesy, of passion, and of inspiration. I confess to you secretly that they certainly will be cheated this evening.”


Gottschalk and the Piano

  • Involved in a scandal in San Francisco

    • A scandal about his relationship with a student at Oakland Female Seminary

  • “Spirited” aboard a ship (which headed for South America)

  • Played concerts in Peru, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay for 3 years

    • travelled to Santiago de Chile, Buenos Aires, and Rio de Janeiro. His concerts were tremendously successful all across South America and sometimes took the form of “monster concerts” involving up to 650 performers.

  • Depressed over the poverty, illiteracy and the brutal life he observed, Gottschalk began to write and lecture with great passion

  • Committed a kind of suicide by overwork and illness in 1869


Gottschalk and the Piano

  • Died of peritonitis (inflammation of the membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen) December 1869 age 40 in Tijuca, a suburb of Rio de Janeiro (where he was regarded as a national hero)

  • His diaries “Notes of a Pianist” were published by his sister

  • Thorough knowledge of the classics and European culture

  • Fluent in French, English, Italian and Spanish

  • A favorite of royal families

  • Generous with his time and money


Gottschalk and the Piano

  • Mobbed by schoolgirls

  • The first American composer of international reputation

  • Favorite piano of his later years was the American - made Chickering

  • Famous as a composer and as a pianist

  • Called “The American Chopin”

  • A contemporary of Andrew Jackson and Hector Berlioz


Bamboula: Danse Des Negres (Op. 2)

  • 1845 - Age 16

  • Pre-dates other works by other composers (Milhaud and Gould) by 100 years

  • Selected as a trial piece for competition by the Paris Conservatory

  • One of his most popular works

  • Played it at more than 1200 concerts

  • Origins in music of slave dances in Congo Square in New Orleans


Le Bananier (Op. 55)

  • 1846

  • Very popular

  • Often repeated at concerts

  • Published separately in most major cities in U.S. and Europe

  • Played on a modern piano

  • Played on a Conrad Graf piano - 1826


The Last Hope (Op. 16)

  • Composed in 1853 at Santiago de Cuba to soothe the last moments of a Cuban lady

  • For years thereafter Gottschalk played it every evening in her memory

  • Unprecedented popularity during Gottschalk’s lifetime

  • Found in at least 26 different editions at the Library of Congress

  • Included in many protestant hymnals

  • Survived in popularity until the 1920s


El Cocoye

  • His best essay on Cuban music

  • Composed in 1953


The Banjo (Op. 15)

  • Famous piece

  • Often played at the end of a concert

  • Sounds like a banjo

  • Recalls early minstrel tunes

  • Resembles Stephen Foster’s “Camptown Races”


Night in the Tropics

  • Possibly the first American symphony to be performed in the United States

  • Probably composed in 1959 on Martinique and Guadeloupe

  • His attraction to the tropics came from his maternal grandparents - Camille and Josephine Deynaud Brusle who were born and raised in Haiti and immigrated to New Orleans in the 1790s after their families were killed in the slave rebellion


Night in the Tropics

  • MS acquired by the NY Public Library in 1949

  • Performed by the Columbia Symphony in 1955

  • Published by Boosey and Hawkes in 1965

  • 2-piano setting never published

  • 2nd movement played at the Eastman Monster Concert


Louis Moreau Gottschalk1829 - 1869

  • native of New Orleans

  • musical training in Paris

  • spoke English with an accent

  • hailed as a pianist and composer

  • American debut 2-11-1853 at Niblo’s Salon

  • refused an offer from P.T. Barnum

  • toured for four years

  • Havana, Central America, and West Indies in 1857 with Adelina Patti


Gottschalk, the Showman

  • concert notes (HAM 224)

  • organized concerts and festivals for gigantic groups - Cuba, 1860 (ham226)

  • 1861 - Cuba - 40 pianists

  • 1865 - San Francisco - 10 pianists

  • last four years of his life in Central and South America

    • Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay


Gottschalk - the Pianos

  • Souvenir de Porto Rico

    • Played on an Erard, 1866

  • La Gallina

    • Played on a John Broadwood, 1850


A Little More Gottschalk

  • The important compositions of his European Career:

    • Bamboula, Le Bananier, La Savane, La Mancenillier

  • The most comprehensive recordings of Gottschalk’s piano music:

    • 40 Works for the Piano Alan Mandel, pianoVox Box CD3X 3033

  • Published music:

    • Louis Moreau Gottschalk, Piano MusicNew York: Dover Publications, 1973

    • to purchase music:

      • 1-800-753-BACH


the three types of classical music

  • Germanic repertory

    • symphonies, chamber music, large choral works

      • Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn

  • Music offered by the virtuoso performers

    • concert dances, variations on familiar operatic airs and popular songs, programmatic pieces

  • Music of Democratic Sociability (pieces by American composers)

    • larger forms, dances, and “popular” music


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