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ART IN 19TH CENTURY Clara Rodríguez Núñez ART IN 19TH CENTURY FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON: NEOCLASSICISM (David) LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM: ROMANTICISM (Delacroix) WORKERS MOVEMENT: REALISM (Courbet) INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: NEW ARCHITECTURE (Eiffel)

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ART IN 19TH CENTURY

Clara Rodríguez Núñez


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ART IN 19TH CENTURY

  • FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON: NEOCLASSICISM (David)

  • LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM: ROMANTICISM (Delacroix)

  • WORKERS MOVEMENT: REALISM (Courbet)

  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: NEW ARCHITECTURE (Eiffel)

  • ART AFTER THE PHOTOGRAPHY: IMPRESSIONISM AND POSTIMPRESSIONISM (Monet) (Van Gogh/Cezanne/Gauguin


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NEOCLASSICISM

  • Subject matter: "history" paintings most important (especially subjects from Greek or Roman history or mythology) 

  • Themes: social, moral, ethical themesor classical or patriotic themes urban themes

  • Theory of art: didactic: art is to teach  

  • General style: clear, orderly, rational 

  • Composition: figures parallel to picture plane 

  • Space: clearly defined space: box-like or bas relief 

  • Figures: idealized, generalized, statue-like  

  • Color: somber, flat 

  • Application of paint: linear, careful application 


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DAVID, "Oath of the Horatii"


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DAVID, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard


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DAVID: Coronation of Napoleon and Josephine


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ROMANTICISM

  • Subject matter: various subject matters; if "historical" subjects, the Bible was the source

  • Themes: sensuous themesor religious themes, interest in nature

  • Theory of art: art is to move, inspire

  • General style: dynamic, restless, emotional, moody

  • Composition: use of diagonal; dynamic

  • Space: vast, unlimited; ambiguous

  • Figures: expressive, individualistic

  • Color: vivid, intense 

  • Application of paint: painterly 


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  • David's The Death of Socrates, 1787.

  • Delacroix's The Death of Sardanapalus,

    1827


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DELACROIX:Liberty leading the People


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REALISM

  • Subject matter: life as it is

  • Themes:ordinary places and people.

  • Theory of art:to report and describe reality as accurately and honestly as possible; to denounce the workers class situation.

  • Space: in the open air

  • Figures: realistic, individualistic


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COURBET: The Stone Breakers


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COURBET: Proudhom and his daughters


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NEW ARCHITECTURE

  • New materials

    • Iron

    • Concrete

  • Buildings:

    • Towers

    • Bridges

    • Warehouses


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JOSEPH PAXTON: Crystal palace




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BEFORE IMPRESSIONISM

  • Subject matter:

    • portraits of rich or famous people.

    • religious themes.

    • historical themes

  • Style in paintings: realism.

  • Artists painted on commission

  • Lighting in portraits was mostly indoors.

  • Colors and shadows. There were lots of browns and yellows


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AFTER IMPRESSIONISM

  • Subject matter:

    • everyday people doing everyday activities

    • landscapes

    • color

  • Style in paintings: Impressionism (their impression of the subject)

  • Artists painted for enjoyment

  • Lighting was mostly outdoors.

  • Small brushstrokes of color next to each other that were blended by the viewer's eye



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MONET: The English Parliament





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CEZANNE: Apples and oranges



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VAN GOGH: His room in Arles



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Before: being influenced by Impressionism

  • · The Old Church at Nuenen is painted in dark mudding colors (as was standard for Gogh's Early Paintings) ·

  • The painting is a literal representation of the church, sky and surroundings. ·

  • The use of color is very minimal.

  • The dark church and light sky keep the eye focused on the building.


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After: being influenced by Impressionism

  • · The Church at Auvers is painted in the bright colors of the impressionist and post impressionists ·

  • The free forming lines cause the subject (the church) to become wavy and appear to be bending or melting. ·

  • The vivid color schemes move the onlookers eyes around the painting.


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VAN GOGH: being influenced by ImpressionismThe sunflowers


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GAUGUIN: being influenced by ImpressionismSelf-portrait with the yellow Christ




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