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Multimedia and Interactivity Interactivity Allows users to manipulate information and to contribute to the story Promotes user involvement and understanding Results in an online journalism story that is a collection of contributions from journalists, experts and individual readers

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Multimedia and Interactivity

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Multimedia and interactivity l.jpg

Multimedia and Interactivity


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Interactivity

  • Allows users to manipulate information and to contribute to the story

  • Promotes user involvement and understanding

  • Results in an online journalism story that is a collection of contributions from journalists, experts and individual readers


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Types of Media Elements

  • Graphics

  • Sound

  • Video

  • Rich content

  • Databases and interactive mashups


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Graphics

  • Photographs—Help convey the emotion or essence of the story

  • NYT Year in Pictures


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Techniques and Aestheticsfor Gathering Images

  • Picture composition (framing)

  • Three basic shots:

    • Long shot

    • Medium shot

    • Close-up

  • Rule of thirds

  • Eye space

  • Depth of field


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Graphics

  • Maps—Specify geographical location of the news story

  • NYT and Weekend Explorer


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Graphics

  • Technical illustrations—Show how a system works

  • NYT @ the Met

  • NYT Crane Collapse


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Graphics

  • Information graphics—Show relationships between numbers or concepts (bar chart, line chart)

  • NYT and The Ebb and Flow of Movies


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Sound

  • When to use sound

    • Does it help tell the story?

    • Does it convey to users a sense of being there?

  • How to integrate sound with the story

    • With basic HTML, a plug-in plays the sound clip

    • Supplement HTML with Java or Flash for a more immersive effect


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Digital Sound Formats

  • Streaming (RealAudio)

  • MP3 (best compromise for music)

  • Combinations

    • NYT and The Lourdes of Twang

    • NYT and Voices from the Polls


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Microphones

  • Three main types:

    • Hand-held

    • Lavaliere

    • Shotgun


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Recording Devices

  • Volume level and sound quality are important aspects

  • May choose format and quality before recording

  • Selection of digitizing quality includes additional parameters:

    • Sampling rate

    • Bit depth

    • Channels


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Video

  • When to use video

    • Does it help tell the story?

    • Does it show something unique?

  • How to combine video with the story

    • With basic HTML, video clips disrupt flow of story

    • Users should be allowed to choose whether they want to view video


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Video Aesthetics

  • Aspects of still photography apply to video

  • Camera moves:

    • Panning

    • Tilting

    • Zooming

  • Additional video considerations:

    • Compression, Sequencing, Sound bites


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Digitizing and Editing Audio and Video

  • Tradeoffs = higher quality but larger files require more bandwidth

  • Requires a specialized video capture card

  • Compression can make files smaller

    • MPEG-1 or MPEG-4

    • Choose settings based on individual preferences, e.g., smooth motion or frame detail


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Rich Content

  • Additions to HTML that allow greater interactivity and control of individual media elements

    • Java

    • Flash

  • USAToday and Gasoline

  • MSNBC “Battle of the Bags”


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User-Generated Content

  • Forums and blogs

  • Databases

  • Crowdsourcing

  • Open-source journalism


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Making Media Decisions

  • Nature of the story

  • Target audience

  • Available resources


  • Login