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Community-Based Evaluation Methods & Data Analysis Amy Carroll April 22, 2005. Opinions, priorities Aspirations, motivations Level of awareness, knowledge, attitudes or beliefs Behaviors, practices Assets, skills Networks, associations Needs, fears, problems, concerns
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Level of awareness, knowledge, attitudes or beliefs
Needs, fears, problems, concerns
Services or resources provided
Resident utilization of services or resources provided
Numbers or rates of disease, illness, disability, injuries
Sales transactions, purchases
Pictures, other visuals
MapsDifferent Types of Data
Collected in the form of numbers or percentages
Answers who?, what?, when? and where?
Can demonstrate cause and effect
Can “represent” a population
Cannot collect new ideas or responses, only those considered ahead of time
Collected in the form of words, concepts, themes, or categories
Answers how?, why?
Can provide richer, more in-depth data
Can provide data in a respondent’s own words
Can explore new ideas in a dynamic and unstructured wayQuantitative vs. Qualitative Data
Which collect qualitative data?
The following are two steps in determining your survey target population.
1) Define your target population --identify the group of individuals from your community from who you want to collect information (single mothers, high school students, the uninsured, etc.)
2) Identify the geographic area of your target population.--Where is your group of interest located?What are the geographic boundaries of your target population?
Self Administered: These surveys are filled out by respondents themselves without the assistance of trained interviewers.
A. Mail Surveys
B. Drop-off Surveys
Administered by Interviewer: These surveys are filled out with the assistance of trained interviewers.
A. Face to Face Surveys
B. Telephone Surveys
Data can be collected from a lot of respondents easier than any other method
Can get a large enough sample that can be representative of the larger population
Findings can be generalized to the larger population
Can cover a lot of topics
Can easily compare different groups’ data to each other
Survey instrument must be carefully constructed to avoid leading questions, and to make sure the appropriate responses are available
Response rates can be low for self-administered surveys, especially mailed ones
Response will be low if survey is too longAdvantages and Disadvantages of Surveys
Focus group are a qualitative research method designed to learn more about how people think, feel, or make decisions (attitudes, perceptions, opinions, experiences) through focused discussions.
Focus group questions
Extremely important to select moderators based on skills and experience:
Captures rich, in-depth data
Encourages and stimulates individuals to share more openly
Data can be combined with quantitative data to provide a complete picture about an issue
May be challenging to recruit participants
Need to schedule at least 2-3 focus groups to capture diversity
Difficult to generalize results to the larger population because of small numbers of participants
Difficult to compare results across groupsAdvantages and Disadvantages of Focus Groups
Telephone interviews (15-25 min):
Face-to-face interviews (20-30 min):
Introduction- Introduce yourself and your purpose and/or benefits statement.
Key questions- Draft 5-10 questions important to getting the information you have set out to collect.
Probing questions – Probing questions encourage participants to reflect more deeply on the meaning of their comments.
Closing question—Provide an opportunity for the key informant to give any additional information or comments.
Summary—Quickly summarize the major comments made.
Rich data can be gathered relatively cheaply & easily
Allows interviewer to establish rapport with the respondent, clarify questions, and draw out responses
Allows for discussion of topic without group dynamic of focus groups
Provides an opportunity to build relationships with important community stakeholders
Selecting the “right” key informants may be difficult so they represent diverse backgrounds and viewpoints
May be challenging to reach and schedule interviews with busy and/or hard-to-reach respondents
Difficult to generalize results to the larger population unless interviewing many key informantsAdvantages and Disadvantages of Key Informant Interviews