Understanding students with learning disabilities
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Understanding Students with Learning Disabilities. Chapter 5. Sam Kirk. http://wc.arizona.edu/~wildcat/papers/90/1/14_1_m.html. IDEA Definition.

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Sam Kirk

  • http://wc.arizona.edu/~wildcat/papers/90/1/14_1_m.html


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IDEA Definition

Learning disability (LD) is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.


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What Learning Disability Does NOT cover

Learning Disabilities does not include learning problems due to

  • visual, hearing, or motor disabilities

  • mental retardation or emotional disturbance

  • environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage


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Etiologies of LD

  • Biology: influences the neural, chemical, and functional aspects of the body.

    • Accounts for traits and conditions which are hereditary.

    • Are transmitted to the child from the mother and the father.

    • Examples of hereditary: schizophrenia, depression, and temperament.


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Biological Influences

  • Birth

    • Prenatal: maternal drug/alcohol use, disease, maternal poor nutrition

    • Perinatal: brain damage from anoxia

    • Postnatal: brain damage from accident or shaken severely, lead poisoning,and encephalitis


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Genetics

75% likelihood of having LD if both

parents have LD

51% likelihood if 1 parent has LD

More than 1/2 of reading impairments

of identical twins is heredity


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Characteristics of SLD

  • Average or above average intelligence

  • Discrepancies in their ability to perform skills - inconsistent

  • Difficulty learning to read and write

  • Seem less mature than peers

  • Difficulty speaking, fumbles with words

  • Works slowly on papers, often performs many errors

  • 30% also have ADHD


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More Characteristics

  • Difficulty taking notes

  • Poor handwriting

  • Poor organization of schoolwork

  • Poor short/long term memory

  • Do not achieve to the expectations of parents and teachers

  • Can hear, but not understand what they hear (auditory perceptual problems)

  • Can see, but not make sense of what they see (visual perceptual problems

  • Understands more, than they write or express


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Prevalence

  • Vary from 2.7 percent to 30 percent

  • 5 percent to 10 percent of the school-age population

  • 2.8 million children served under IDEA


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7 Areas of SLD

  • Oral Expression

  • Listening Comprehension

  • Written Expression

  • Basic Reading Skills

  • Reading Comprehension

  • Mathematics Calculation

  • Mathematics Reasoning


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Academic Achievement

  • Dyslexia

  • Dysgraphia

  • Dyscalculia


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Intelligence

  • Above average, average, and near-average intelligence

  • May exhibit secondary behavioral or emotional concerns

  • Variability between measured intelligence and performance

  • Intraindividual differences among skill areas, such as average performance in mathematics but deficiencies in reading.


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Cognition/Information Processing

  • Acquires, retains, and manipulates information, is problematic

  • Perform poorly on memory tests

  • Attention problems, including short attention spans and selective attention


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Learning Characteristics

  • Perception (Auditory and Visual)

  • Discrimination (Auditory and Visual)


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Hyperactivity

  • Many children with learning disabilities exhibit hyperactive behavior

  • The appropriateness of the child’s excess activity should be considered


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Social/Emotional Characteristics

  • Low self-esteem and negative emotional consequences

  • May not interact effectively with others


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Determining Eligibility

  • Pre-2004 IDEA used discrepancy standard

  • Responsiveness to intervention approach


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RTI

  • Students are provided with “generally effective” instruction

  • Progress is monitored

  • Students not responding get something more

  • Progress is monitored

  • Students still not responding either qualify for special education or get evaluated for special education


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Advanced Organizers

  • http://www.glnd.k12.va.us/resources/graphicalorganizers/

  • http://newali.apple.com/ali_sites/ali/exhibits/1000328/Advanced_Organizers.html

  • http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_go.html

  • http://www.graphic.org/


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Educational Placements

  • 49% attend regular classes 80-100% of the day

  • 37% attend regular classes 40-79% of the day

  • 13% attend regular classes 0-39% of the day

  • .2% attend home/hospital

  • .6% attend separate facility

  • .2% attend residential facility


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Accommodations

  • Extended time for testing

  • Provide a reader

  • Use of calculator

  • Use of computer

  • Break up testing over several days

  • Use tape recorder


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