The New Biology: From Science in the Modern World to the Genetics of Diabetes. Gilbert S. Omenn , M.D., Ph.D. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA SuperCourse of Science Conference 6 January 2009 Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt.
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Gilbert S. Omenn, M.D., Ph.D.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
SuperCourse of Science Conference
6 January 2009
Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Our Muslim forefathers first held up the torch of rationality, tolerance, and advancement of knowledge throughout the Dark Ages of medieval Europe. [astronomy, math, chemistry]
Ibn Al-Haytham (10th C) laid down rules for the scientific method of observation, experiment, and search for truth. Ibn Al-Nafis (13th C) emphasized respect for contrarian views to be tested with evidence. Then came Taqlid.
Science requires freedom to enquire, challenge, think, and envision the unimagined.
--Ismail Serageldin, SCIENCE 8-08-08
Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.
A beacon and compass for science, education, and peace in the Muslim world and the broader developing world
An institution with a stunning legacy, magnificent architecture, a splendid leader, fully digitalized resources, and remarkable, diverse initiatives, including—among many others---the SuperCourse of Science.
A leading force for cooperation and collaboration among equals between North and South.
“Research and innovation are the main keys to Europe’s development. They are also the most efficient way to respond to the challenges set by Asia’s large emerging economies and to lay the foundation for sustainable development for the entire planet.”
14 May, 2008
FRONTIER SCIENCE AND GRAND CHALLENGES: INVESTING IN HIGH-POTENTIAL INDIVIDUALS AND HIGH-PAYOFF SCIENTIFIC FIELDS
Gilbert S. Omenn
University of Michigan
French Presidency of the EU
Symposium Celebrating Frontier Science
Paris, 7 October, 2008
--G.S. Omenn, SCIENCE 15 Dec 2006
These goals for peace, security, development, human rights and fundamental freedoms (1990 to 2015) are people-centered, time-bound, and measurable.
and hunger--by 50%
reverse incidence and spread
those without safe drinking water
8. Develop a global partnership for development
New Biology---New Technology
Genome Expression Microarrays
Comparative Genomics, Epigenetics,
miRNA Gene Regulation
Proteomics, incl alternative splice isoforms
Path to predictive, personalized,
preventive (P3) healthcare
The DNA Pioneers Challenges)—Gates Foundation
The Historic Weekend of Feb 15-16, 2001 Challenges)—Gates Foundation
U.S. Leaders of the Human Genome Project Challenges)—Gates Foundation
J. Craig Venter and Francis Collins
Protein Challenges)—Gates Foundation
Sequencing and analyzing the human genome is generating genetic information that must be linked with information about:
Every discipline of public health sciences needed.
NIH National Centers for Biomedical Computing Challenges)—Gates Foundation
Physics-Based Simulation of
Biological Structures (SIMBIOS)
Russ Altman, PI
Informatics for IntegratingBiology and the Bedside (i2b2)
Isaac Kohane, PI
National Center for Integrative Biomedical Informatics (NCIBI)
Brian D. Athey, PI
National Alliance for Medical
Imaging Computing (NA-MIC)
Ron Kikinis, PI
The National Center For
Biomedical Ontology (NCBO)
Mark Musen, PI
Multiscale Analysis of Genomic
and Cellular Networks (MAGNet)
Andrea Califano, PI
Center for Computational Biology
(CCB) Arthur Toga, PI
Global Health Network Solve the “Puzzle” of Complex Diseases and Conditions—such as Diabetes
42 Mirrored Sites,
MOH Egypt, Sudan, China, Mongolia, Russia
East-West Collaboration Solve the “Puzzle” of Complex Diseases and Conditions—such as Diabetes
Prevalence Estimates of Diabetes in selected Arab Countries > 20 Years old in the Year 2025Dev Countries/World/Tunisia/Oman/Saudi Arabia/Egypt
Craig L. Hanis, Ph.D., University of Texas at Houston; delivered at Univ Pittsburgh,
23 October, 2001
#1 ranked “Genetics and Diabetes” lecture at www.pitt.edu/~super1/
has transformed the genetic side of molecular epidemiology, but neglected non-genetic variables
I focus rest of the lecture on genomics and diabetes, as a bridge to the WHO course starting today on Epidemiology of Diabetes.
In 2007, five GWA studies were reported:
They replicated earlier evidence for three genome variants: TCF7L2, PPARG, and KCNJ11.
They identified at least six additional variants in or near these loci: SLC30A8, IGF2BP2, FTO, HHEX-IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A-CDKN2B.
Only one (SLC30A8) is a likely functional variant at the protein level.
Variants in FTO are associated also with body mass index.
Evidence for Association of T2DM with Several Traits on Chromosome 9p21: SNPs in 10,128 GWA samples. Arrows = locations of SNPs. Black bars = recombination hotspots. Genes and transcripts at the bottom.
Processes involved in genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes, based on the best candidates within each signal and human physiological studies. Most genes implicated in diabetes susceptibility act through effects on beta-cell function or mass. [McCarthy and Hattersly, 2008]
An avalanche of genomic information: validated SNPs, haplotype blocks, candidate genes/alleles, proteins, & metabolites--associated with disease risk
Powerful computational methods
Effective linkages with better environmental and behavioral datasets for eco-genetic analyses
Credible privacy and confidentiality protections
Breakthrough tests, vaccines, drugs, behaviors, and regulatory actions to reduce health risks and cost-effectively treat patients in the US and globally.
23andme.com is a company in California, offering:
Interdisciplinary science and engineering to design and build novel biological functions and systems to:
Safety regimens will be critical.
The BIO FAB Group: David Baker, George Church, Jim Collins, Drew Endy, Joseph Jacobson, Jay Keasling, Paul Modrich, Christina Smolke and Ron Weiss (Scientific American 2006)
BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS are the basis of an approach to biotechnology modeled on electronics engineering.
Principles and practices learned from engineering successes, especially standardization of parts and automation of processes can help transform biotechnology and “genetic engineering” from a specialized craft into a mature industry.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Epidemiologists
The future belongs to those who give the
next generation hope.
I dream of things that never were, and ask, why not?”