Biology I Mr. Galloway Chapter 34 Animals : An Introduction Recommended Websites: www.soulcare.org www.icr.org www.AnswersInGenesis.org Science magnifies the Lord by examining the awesome beauty and complexity of His World in the light of His Word.
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Animals: An Introduction
Science magnifies the Lord by examining the awesome beauty and complexity of His World in the light of His Word.
What is an animal?
- Multicellular- Need water, food, and oxygen to survive- Heterotrophs* Carnivores (Predators of Prey) (Eat other animals)* Herbivores (Eat plants)* Omnivores (Eat plants and other animals)
The “Backbone” of Animal Classification
95 % Invertebrates (No backbone) - jellyfish, worms, snails, spiders, insects)
5 % Vertebrates (Backbone) – fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)
* Why did God create creatures of various complexities, that we can categorize (classify) in an order from relatively simple (bacteria) to very complex (humans)?
- Is it because He used evolution to make them?
- Is it to point upward, beyond humans to Him?
- Vertebrata is a subphylum of the phylum Chordata
- Vertebra one of the repeating bony units of the backbone
- specialization the differentiation of a cell for a particular function
- cell junction connection between cells that holds them together as a unit
- Sexual reproduction = two haploid gametes fuse into a zygote
- zygote the first cell of a new individual in sexual reproduction
- differentiation a process through which cells become different from one another
- Nervous tissue perceives signals from stimuli
- neuron a cell that transmits electrical signals
- muscle tissue receives nerve impulses and responds to the stimuli
Symmetry & Body Direction
When studying and describing animals, some basic body characteristics are important. These include:
Animal Body Symmetry - the way body parts are arranged around a center point. (Asymmetry, Bilateral Symmetry, Radial Symmetry)
Directions on the body - used to describe areas on the body of an animal. (Dorsal, Ventral, Anterior, Posterior)
Bilateral and Radial Symmetry
Directions on an animal body:
Sea Urchin Fertilization (sperm & egg)
Germ tissue layers produce adult organs
The flatworm (planarian) is an acoelomate because it does not have a coelom within its mesoderm layer. Its digesitive cavity is surrounded by the endodermal layer.
Roundworms (Nematoda) and rotifers (Rotifera) have a body cavity (coelom) where organs are found and that can serve as a hydrostatic (fluid-filled) skeleton. Their coelom is called a pseudocoelom because it is not completely lined by mesoderm.
Coelomates: with a true coelom
Coelomates: with a true coelom
All complex animals have a true coelom, including the mollusks, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms and chordates. They have a true coelom that is completely lined by the mesoderm layer. The internal organs in a true coelom are more complex, and they are held in place by mesentaries.
In other words, the coelom (white) is completely enclosed within the mesoderm layer (blue). Coelomates have more complex internal organs and a muscular gut (intestines) derived from the mesoderm.
Skeletal System – provide protection, support, & motion. This will also include muscular systems.
Digestive System - break down the food taken into the body.