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Biology I Mr. Galloway Chapter 34 Animals : An Introduction Recommended Websites: www.soulcare.org www.icr.org www.AnswersInGenesis.org Science magnifies the Lord by examining the awesome beauty and complexity of His World in the light of His Word.

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Biology I

Mr. Galloway

Chapter 34

Animals: An Introduction

Recommended Websites:

www.soulcare.org

www.icr.org

www.AnswersInGenesis.org


Science magnifies the Lord by examining the awesome beauty and complexity of His World in the light of His Word.


  • Adaptation through Natural SelectionMicro-Evolution (Horizontal change)

  • The “Family” or “Genus” level of classification represents a biblical “Kind”. The “Dog” kind includes wolves, foxes, dogs, etc….. There are many different species (and genera) within each “Kind”.

  • Mutations always result in a loss of information, never new information. So, only changes within “Kinds” (Dogs: wolf to a poodle) can occur.

  • Impossible for one “Kind” to become a new “Kind”. (Reptile to a bird) “Kinds” of animals do adapt (change), due to environmental pressures. (size, color, hair length, teeth shape, ear length, etc.)


Characteristics of Animals

  • All are multicellular

  • All are heterotrophic

  • Most are motile, (can move), at least some part of life cycle

  • Most undergo a period of embryonic development during which 2 or 3 layers of tissues form


What is an animal?

- Multicellular- Need water, food, and oxygen to survive- Heterotrophs* Carnivores (Predators of Prey) (Eat other animals)* Herbivores (Eat plants)* Omnivores (Eat plants and other animals)


The “Backbone” of Animal Classification

95 % Invertebrates (No backbone) - jellyfish, worms, snails, spiders, insects)

5 % Vertebrates (Backbone) – fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)

* Why did God create creatures of various complexities, that we can categorize (classify) in an order from relatively simple (bacteria) to very complex (humans)?

- Is it because He used evolution to make them?

- Is it to point upward, beyond humans to Him?


The Nature of Animals (Kingdom Animalia)

  • Invertebrates = 95% of all animals Vertebrate an animal with a backbone (5% of animals)

    - Vertebrata is a subphylum of the phylum Chordata

    - Vertebra one of the repeating bony units of the backbone

  • Animals are Multicellular

    - specialization the differentiation of a cell for a particular function

    - cell junction connection between cells that holds them together as a unit

  • Heterotrophy requires ingestion the taking in of organic matter

  • Sexual Reproduction and Development:

    - Sexual reproduction = two haploid gametes fuse into a zygote

    - zygote the first cell of a new individual in sexual reproduction

  • Development causes the cells to undergo differentiation

    - differentiation a process through which cells become different from one another

  • Movement is made possible by two tissue types (muscle and nervous tissue)

    - Nervous tissue perceives signals from stimuli

    - neuron a cell that transmits electrical signals

    - muscle tissue receives nerve impulses and responds to the stimuli


Symmetry & Body Direction

When studying and describing animals, some basic body characteristics are important. These include:

Animal Body Symmetry - the way body parts are arranged around a center point. (Asymmetry, Bilateral Symmetry, Radial Symmetry)

Directions on the body - used to describe areas on the body of an animal. (Dorsal, Ventral, Anterior, Posterior)


Asymmetry = no symmetry


Bilateral and Radial Symmetry

  • Cephalization = concentration of nerve tissue and sensory organs at the anterior end of a bilateral organism


Directions on an animal body:


  • Animal Diversity

  • Animalia

  • Invertebrata = (10 major phyla)

  • Chordata =

  • (11th major phylum)

  • * Vertebrata = a subphylum


Eleven

Major

Animal

Phyla


False Evolutionary

Tree

Coelomates

Pseudocoelomates

Acoelomates


Fertilization:


Sea Urchin Fertilization (sperm & egg)


Animal Tissue Development

Germ tissue layers produce adult organs

  • Endoderm = develops into gut lining

  • Mesoderm = develops into muscles and internal body linings

  • Ectoderm = develops into skin


Embryonic Development

  • Zygote = a fertilized egg cell. The zygote then begins to divide and eventually forms a hollow sphere of cells. (called a blastula)

  • The blastula continues to grow through cell division and an indentation forms into the sphere. (The embryo is now called a gastrula)


Acoelomates:

The flatworm (planarian) is an acoelomate because it does not have a coelom within its mesoderm layer. Its digesitive cavity is surrounded by the endodermal layer.


Pseudocoelomates:

Roundworms (Nematoda) and rotifers (Rotifera) have a body cavity (coelom) where organs are found and that can serve as a hydrostatic (fluid-filled) skeleton. Their coelom is called a pseudocoelom because it is not completely lined by mesoderm.


Coelomates: with a true coelom


Coelomates: with a true coelom

All complex animals have a true coelom, including the mollusks, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms and chordates. They have a true coelom that is completely lined by the mesoderm layer. The internal organs in a true coelom are more complex, and they are held in place by mesentaries.

In other words, the coelom (white) is completely enclosed within the mesoderm layer (blue). Coelomates have more complex internal organs and a muscular gut (intestines) derived from the mesoderm.


Indirect Development


Body Systems

  • Animals have different systems in their bodies to take care of the different jobs that allow them to live and function.

  • We will study the diversity of the animal kingdom by learning about each of these systems and how they function from the simplest of animals to the most complex.


Skeletal System – provide protection, support, & motion. This will also include muscular systems.

Digestive System - break down the food taken into the body.

Systems & Functions


  • Respiratory Systems– involve the exchange of gasses into and out of the animal. O2 in; CO2 out.

  • Circulatory Systems – Distribute food & oxygen throughout the body and collect cellular wastes. The immune system will also be part of this study.


  • Nervous System – Collects information from the environment and coordinates responses to the environment.

  • Reproductive System – Can function in several ways: binary fission, budding, or sexually.


Patterns of Development

  • Protostome Development- Spiral Cleavage of cells- Schizocoely formation of mesoderm

  • Deuterostome Development- Radial Cleavage of cells- Enterocoely formation of mesoderm


Deuterostome

Protostome

Spiral Cleavage

Radial Cleavage

Enterocoely

Schizoceoly


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