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Colonial Beginnings. Original inhabitants. The Conquerors. Why did they come?. What were the effects?. Culture clash Forced labor Disease . The English. By 1600, North America was still largely unexplored In late 1606, the Virginia Company sent out three ships

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Colonial beginnings l.jpg

Colonial Beginnings

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Original inhabitants

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The Conquerors

  • Why did they come?

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What were the effects?

  • Culture clash

  • Forced labor

  • Disease

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The English

  • By 1600, North America was still largely unexplored

  • In late 1606, the Virginia Company sent out three ships

  • In the spring of 1607 they landed at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.

    • They were attacked by Native Americans an moved on

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  • May 24, 1607 about 100 colonists, all men, landed at Jamestown, along the banks of the James River.

    • Area was easily defended but is was swarming with disease-causing mosquitoes

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Jamestown Fort and Settlement Map

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Jamestown Housing

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Jamestown Problems

  • 1606-1607, 40 people died on the voyage to the New World

  • 1609, another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off Bermuda

  • Settlers died by the dozens

  • “Gentlemen” colonists would not work for themselves

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  • Game in the forests and fish in the river remained uncaught

  • Settlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming

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Pocahontas and Captain Smith

  • Yes, there really was a Pocahontas

  • She “saved” Captain John Smith during a mock execution by Powhatan.

  • Smith is responsible for saving the colony with his rule “he who shall not work, shall not eat”

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English Migration: 1610-1660

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Settlement in Jamestown

  • Large plantations greater than 100 acres

  • Widely spread apart, more than 5 miles

  • What types of problems would this cause?

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High Mortality Rate

  • “Starving Time”

    • 1607: 104 colonists

    • By Spring 1608: 38 survived

    • 1609: 300 more immigrants

    • By Spring 1610: 60 survived

    • 1610-1624: 10,000 immigrants

    • 1624 population: 1,200

    • Adult life expectancy: 40 years

    • Death of children before age 5: 80%

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High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth!

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Chief Powhatan

  • Powhatan Confederacy

    • Powhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James River area when the English arrived

    • The English called all Native Americans in the area Powhatans

    • Powhatan probably saw the English as allies in his struggles to control other tribes in the area

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Powhatan Confederacy

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Culture Clash

  • Relations between Indians and settlers grew worse

    • General mistrust because of different language and culture

    • English raided Indian food supplies during starving times

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Culture Clash

  • 1610-1614: First Anglo-Powhatan War

    • Lord De La Warr, had orders to make war on the Indians

    • Veteran of English battles with Irish, used similar tactic on the Indians

      • Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields

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Culture Clash

  • 1614-1622: Peace between Powhatans and the English

    • 1614 peace sealed with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe

  • 1622-1644: periodic attacks between the Indians and settlers

    • 1622: Indians attacked the English killing 347 including John Rolfe

    • Virginia Company called for a “perpetual war” against the Native Americans

      • Raids reduced native population and drove them further westward

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Culture Clash

  • 1644-1646: Second Anglo- Powhatan War

    • Last effort of natives to defeat the English

  • Peace Treaty of 1646

    • Removed the Powhatans from their original land

    • Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas

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What finally made the colony prosper?

  • “Virginia’s gold and silver”

    • John Rolfe, 1612

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Tobacco in the Colony

  • 1618Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco

  • 1622Despite losing nearly 1/3 of its colonists to an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco

  • 1627Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco

  • 1629Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco

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Indentured Servitude

  • Headright system

    • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid

  • Indenture Contract

    • 5-7 years

    • Promised “freedom dues” {land, etc}

    • Forbidden to marry

    • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts

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Tobacco and Virginia

  • Effect on economy

    • Vital role in putting Virginia on a firm economic footing

    • Ruinous to soil when continuously planted

    • Chained Virginia’s economy to a single crop

  • Promoted use of plantation system

    • Need for cheap abundant labor

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  • 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement

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Virginia House of Burgesses

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Growing Political Power

  • House of Burgesses was established in 1619 and began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England

    • Had control over finances and militia

  • By the end of the 17th C The House of Burgesses was able to initiate legislation

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  • A Council was appointed by the royal governor

    • Mainly leading planters

    • Functioned like the House of Lords

    • High death rates insured rapid turnover of members

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Virginia becomes a Royal Colony

  • James I grew hostile to Virginia

    • He hated tobacco

    • He distrusted the House of Burgesses, he called it the seminary of sedition

  • 1624: revoked the charter of the bankrupt Virginia Company

    • Virginia became a royal colony under the king’s direct control

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English Tobacco Label

  • First Africans arrived in Jamestown 1619

    • Their status was not clear, perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants

    • Slavery was not that important until the end of the 17th century

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Atlantic Slave Trade

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The Middle Passage

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Colonial Slavery

  • As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat

    • Slavery transformed from an economic to an economic and racial institution

    • Early 1600s: differences between slave and servant were unclear

  • By the mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white indentured servants

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Colonial Slavery

  • Beginning in 1662 “Slave Codes”

    • Made Blacks and their children property or chattel for life of white masters

    • In some colonies it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write

    • Conversion to Christianity did not qualify a slave for freedom

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An Ad For a Slave Sale

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Indentured Servant

Bound for a set number of years

Children are free, not bound

Escape easy, white skin blends in


Bound for life

Children are slaves, bound for life

Escape hard, black skin, easily noticed

Difference between a Slave and an Indentured Servant

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Frustrated Freemen

  • Late 1600s: large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area

    • Little access to land or women for marriage

  • 1670:The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men

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Bacon’s Rebellion 1676

  • Led 1,000 Virginians in rebellion against Governor Berkeley

  • Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians

  • Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area

  • Berkeley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements

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  • Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly to whites or not.

  • Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown

  • Rebels burned the capital

    • Rebels went on a rampage of plundering

  • Bacon died suddenly of fever

  • Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels

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Results of Bacon’s Rebellion

  • It exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantations

    • Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history

  • Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel----Black Slaves

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  • Royal charter was granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore in 1632

  • A proprietary colony was created in 1634

    • Those colonies granted to one or more proprietors who had complete ruling rights

  • A healthier location that Jamestown

    • Tobacco would be the main crop

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  • Lord Baltimore’s plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship

    • Huge tracts of land were granted to his Catholic relatives

    • Was a refuge for Catholics

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A Haven for Catholics

  • Colonists only willing to come to Maryland if they received land

  • Colonists who do come received modest farms dispersed around the Chesapeake area

    • Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers

    • Conflict between barons and farmers led to Baltimore losing proprietary rights at the end of the 17th C

  • In the late 1600s, black slaves began to be imported

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  • Lord Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent a repeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants

    • High numbers of Protestants threatened because of overwhelming rights given to Catholics

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Toleration Act of 1649

  • Supported by Catholics in Maryland

  • Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS

  • Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus, such as Jews and atheists

  • In one way it was less tolerant than before the law was passed

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Toleration Act

  • ...whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth upon any occasion of offence otherwise in a reproachfull manner or way declare call or denominate any person or persons whatsoever inhabiting, residing, traficking, trading or comercing within this province or within any ports, harbours, creeks or havens to the same belonging, an Heretick, Schismatick, Idolator, Puritan, Independent Presbyterian, Antenomian, Barrowist, Roundhead, Separatist, Popish Priest, Jesuit, Jesuited Papist, Lutheran, Calvenist, Anabaptist, Brownist or any other name or term in a reproachful manner relating to matters of Religion shall for every such offence foreit and lose the sum of ten shillings Sterling or the value thereof to be levied on the goods and chattels of every such offender and offenders...

  • and if they could not pay, they were to be "publickly whipt and imprisoned without bail" until "he, she, or they shall satisfy the party so offended or grieved by such reproachful language...."

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The Carolinas

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West Indies a Way Station to Mainland America

  • 1670- a group of small English farmers from the West Indies arrived in Carolina

    • Were squeezed out by sugar barons

    • Brought a few black slaves and a model of the Barbados slave code with them

  • Named for King Charles II

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The Carolinas

  • The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters {Lord Proprietors}

    • They hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe

  • Carolina developed close economic ties to the West Indies

    • They used local Savannah Indians to enslave other Indians and send them to the West Indies and some to New England

    • 1707 Savannah Indians decided to migrate to Pennsylvania

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Port of Charles Town

  • Also named for Charles II of England

  • Became the busiest port in the south

  • City with an aristocratic feel

  • Religious toleration attracted diverse inhabitants

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  • Rice, the primary export

  • Rice was still an exotic food in England

    • Was grown in Africa, so planters imported West African slaves

    • These slaves had a genetic trait that made them immune to malaria

  • By 1710-black slaves were a majority in Carolina

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  • Indigo also became an important crop of the Carolinas

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Emergence of North Carolina

  • Northern part of Carolina shard a border with Virginia

    • Virginia dominated by aristocratic planters who were generally Church of England members

    • Dissenters from Virginia moved south to northern Carolina

      • Poor farmers with little need for slaves

      • Religious dissenters

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North Carolina

  • Distinctive Traits

    • Irreligious and hospitable to pirates

    • Strong spirit of resistance to authority

  • 1712 North Carolina officially separated from South Carolina

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Founded in 1733

Last of the 13 original colonies

Named in honor of King George II

Founded by James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe


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The Buffer Colony

  • Chief purpose for creating Georgia was to serve as a buffer between valuable Carolinas and Spanish Florida and French Louisiana

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  • Received subsidies from British government to offset cost of defense

  • Exported silk and wine

  • A haven for debtors thrown in prison

  • Determined to keep slavery out

    • Slavery found in Georgia in 1750

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The Northern Colonies

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Separatists vs. Puritans

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  • Calvinism  Institutes of the Christian Religion

    • Predestination.

      • Good works could not save those predestined for hell.

      • No one could be certain of their spiritual status.

      • Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion.”

  • Puritans:

    • Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England.

    • Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England.

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  • Separatist Beliefs:

    • Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership.

    • Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects, Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned.”

    • Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England.

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The Mayflower

  • 1620-a group of 102 people (half Separatists) left for the New World

    • Negotiated with the Virginia company to settle in its jurisdiction

    • Non-separatists included Captain Myles Standish

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  • Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia company

    • Became squatters without legal right to land and specific authority to establish a government

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The Mayflower Compact, November 11, 1620

  • Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship.

  • Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule.

    • Signed by 41 adult males.

  • Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.

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Covenant Theology

  • “Covenant of Grace”

    • Between Puritan communities and God

  • “Social Covenant”

    • Between members of Puritan communities with each other

    • Required mutual watchfulness

    • No toleration of deviance or disorder

    • No privacy

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The First Year

  • Winter of 1620-21

    • Only 44 out of the original 102 survived

  • None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back

  • Fall of 1621- The First Thanksgiving

    • Colony survived with fur (especially beaver), fish, and lumber

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  • Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant

    • 1691, only 7000 people

    • Merged with Massachusetts Bay colony

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William Bradford

  • Self taught scholar

  • Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections

  • Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society

  • Considered a model of Christian Charty

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • 1629, non-Separatists got a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Colony

    • Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England

    • They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities”

  • 1639, 1000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships

    • Established a colony with Boston as its hub

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  • “Great Migration” of the 1630s

    • Turmoil in England, leading to the English Civil War, sent about 70,000 Puritans to America

    • About 20,000 came to Massachusetts

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John Winthrop

  • Well-off attorney and manor lord in England

  • Became 1st governor of Massachusetts

    • Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead

    • Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years

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Puritan Rebels

  • Young, popular minister in Salem

    • Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church

    • Condemned Massachusetts Bay Charter

      • Did not give fair compensation to Indians

    • Denied authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior

  • 1635, found guilty of preaching “newe and dangerous opinions’ and was exiled

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Rhode Island

  • Roger Williams fled there in 1636

    • Massachusetts Bay Puritans wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony

    • Remarkable political freedom in Providence, Rhode Island

      • Universal manhood suffrage, later restricted by a property qualification

      • Opposed to special privilege of any kind, freedom of opportunity for all.

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Rhode Island

  • Became known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters.

    • More liberal than any other colony!

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Another “Rebel” Anne Hutchinson

  • Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken

  • Threatened patriarchal control

  • Antinomialism (direct revelation)

    • Means “against the law”

    • Carried to logical extremes Puritan doctrine of predestination

    • Holy life was no sure sign of salvation

    • Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law either of God or man

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Anne Hutchinson’s Trial

  • 1638, she confounded the Puritan leaders for days

  • Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God

  • Direct revelation was even more serious that the heresy of antinomianism

  • Puritan leaders banished her, she and her family traveled to Rhode Island and later to New York

    • She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County

    • John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!

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Puritans vs Native Americans

  • Indians were especially weak in new England, epidemics wiped out ¾ of native population

  • Wampanoogs, near Plymouth, befriended the settlers

    • Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto

  • 1621, Chief Massasoit signed treaty with the settlers

    • Autumn, 1621, both groups celebrated First Thanksgiving

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Pequot Wars 1636-1637

  • Pequots were a very tribe in Connecticut River valley

  • 1637, Pequot War

    • Whites, with Narragansett Indian allies, attacked Pequot village on Mystic River

    • Whites set fire to homes and shot fleeing survivors

    • Pequot tribe virtually annihilated, an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years

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King Philip’s War

  • Only hope for Native Americans to resist white settlers was to UNITE

  • Metacom (King Philip to white settlers)

    • Massasoit’s son united Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England

    • Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston

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  • The war ended in failure for the Indians

    • Metacom was beheaded and drawn and quartered

    • His son and wife were sold into slavery

    • Never a serious threat in New England again

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Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands

  • 1600s, Golden Age of Dutch history

    • Major commercial and naval power

    • Challenging England on the seas

      • 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars

    • Major colonial power, mainly in the East Indies

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Henry Hudson’s Voyages

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New Netherlands

  • New Netherlands, founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624)

    • Established by Dutch West India Company for quick profit fur trade

      • Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony

    • Manhattan (New Amsterdam)

      • Purchased by Company for pennies per acre

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New Amsterdam Harbor 1639

  • Company town run in interests of the stockholders

  • No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy

  • Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic

  • Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church were persecuted

  • Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists

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New Amsterdam 1660

  • Characteristics

    • Aristocratic, patroonships, (feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them)

    • Cosmopolitan, diverse population with many different languages

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Swedes in New Netherlands

  • Mid 1600s Sweden in Golden Age settled small, under-funded colony, called New Sweden, near New Netherland

  • 1655, Dutch under director-general Peter Stuyvesant attack New Sweden

    • Main fort fell after bloodless siege

    • New Sweden absorbed into new Netherland

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New Netherlands becomes a British Royal Colony

  • Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!]

  • 1664  English soldiers arrived.

    • Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses.

    • Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot.

  • Renamed “New York”

    • England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies.

    • England now controlled the Atlantic coast

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The Quakers

  • Called Quakers because they “quaked’ during intense religious practices

  • They offended religious and secular leaders in England

    • Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England

    • They met without paid clergy

    • Believed all were children of God, refused to treat the upper classes with deference

      • Kept hats on

      • Addressed them as commoners, thee and thou

      • Wouldn’t take oaths

      • Pacifists

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William Penn

  • Aristocratic Englishman

  • 1660, attracted to Quaker faith

  • Embraced Quakerism after military service

  • 1681, received a grant from king to establish a colony

    • This settled a debt the king owed his father

    • Named Pennsylvania, Penn’s Woodland

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  • Penn sent our paid agents and advertised for settlers, his pamphlets were pretty honest

    • Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants

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Government of Pennsylvania

  • No tax-supported church.

  • Freedom of worship guaranteed to all.

  • Representative assembly elected by landowners.

  • Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt.

  • Death penalty only for treason & murder.

    • Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!

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Pennsylvanian Society

  • Attracted many different people

    • Religious misfits from other colonies.

    • Many different ethnic groups.

  • No provision for military defense.

  • No restrictions on immigration.

  • No slavery!!

  • “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc.

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Delaware – Pennsylvania’s Neighbor

  • Named after Lord De La Warr, harsh military governor of Virginia in 1610

  • Closely associated with Penn’s colony

  • 1703 granted its own assembly

  • Remained under control of Pennsylvania until the American Revolution

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Education in the colonies

  • Varied amongst the colonies

  • Massachusetts Bay Colony School Law of 1641 required parents to teach their children ”so much learning as may enable they to read the English tongue”

  • If parents were unable to do this, children were sent to a “Dame School” taught by a local woman in her home

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New England Primer

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  • Massachusetts and Connecticut had laws that every town with at least 50 families had to set up a school.

  • These school were for boys only to prepare them for college

  • Girls were taught domestic skills at home

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  • In the south the population was not as centralized so parent taught their children at home.

  • Wealthy planters hired tutors to live on the plantation and teach their children

  • Slaves were given no education

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The Great Awakening

  • Early in 18th century, growth of secular interests and influence of ideas of Enlightenment weakened men’s belief in an arbitrary and vengeful God

  • Churchmen deplored the general religious apathy in the English colonies

  • Emotional revival led by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield

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  • George Whitefield an evangelical Anglican from England

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  • Jonathan Edwards was a fiery New England congregational minister

    • Famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

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Old Lights vs New Lights

  • Revival caused a split among religious leaders

    • Old Lights

      • Condemned emotionalism and took a more rationalistic approach to theology

    • New Lights

      • Encourage evangelical fervor

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