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Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e. Section V: Concept 14 Nutrition. The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your health and wellness. MyPyramid.gov. Click icon for info on Lab 14b. More personalized, behavioral approach to nutrition.

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presentation package for concepts of physical fitness 14e

Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Section V: Concept 14

Nutrition

The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your health and wellness.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

mypyramid gov
MyPyramid.gov

Click icon forinfo on Lab 14b

  • More personalized, behavioral approach to nutrition.
  • Web-based assessment tool called MyPyramid Tracker was also released to help consumers monitor their diet and activity behaviors.
  • Also emphasizes the importance of physical activity.

Click here to view MyPyramid Animationhttp://www.mypyramid.gov/global_nav/media_animation-presentation_eng_pc.html

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

guidelines for healthy eating
Guidelines for Healthy Eating
  • Make half your grains whole.
  • Vary your veggies.
  • Focus on fruits.
  • Know your fats.
  • Get your calcium-rich foods.
  • Go lean with protein.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

slide4

Does the Healthy Eating Pyramid more effectively capture the elements of a healthy diet?

See the Harvard Nutrition Source website

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

general nutrition concepts
General Nutrition Concepts
  • Influences of Nutrition
    • Health
    • Appearance
    • Behavior
    • Mood
  • Role of Nutrients in Diet
    • Growth and development
    • Provide energy
    • Regulate metabolism

See Web14-1 for info on general nutrition guidelines AND links to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

classes of nutrients
Classes of Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

Subsequent slides will provide basic information about each nutrient.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

types of carbohydrates 2 types
Types of Carbohydrates (2 types)
  • Simple
    • Soda, candy, sweets, fruit
    • Individual glucose, sucrose, or fructose molecules
    • Increase blood sugar
    • Promote fat deposition
  • Complex
    • Pasta, rice, breads, potatoes
    • Contribute nutrients and fiber
    • Chains of glucose molecules

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

trends in carbohydrate consumption

C

100

A

35%

R

50%

80

SIMPLE

55%

P

B

E

O

R

H

60

65%

C

Y

E

D

50%

40

COMPLEX

45%

N

R

T

A

20

T

E

S

0

1910 1950 1980

Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption

See Web14-4 for distinctions between complex and simple.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

low carb mania what is the basis
Low Carb Mania(What is the basis?)

Click icon for info on fiber

  • Proponents of low carb diets blame carbohydrates on the obesity epidemic, but this is not well supported by research.
  • The quality of carbohydrates is the real issue and it is still wise to consume quality whole grains with adequate fiber.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

carbohydrate recommendations
Carbohydrate Recommendations
  • Eat at least 3 ounces of whole-grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day. Look to see that grains such as wheat, rice, oats, and corn are referred to as “whole” in the list of ingredients.
  • Eat more dark green vegetables, such as broccoli, kale, and other dark, leafy greens; orange veggies, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and winter squash; and beans and peas, such as pinto beans, kidney beans, black beans, garbanzo beans, split peas, and lentils.
  • Eat a variety of fruits—whether fresh, frozen, canned, or dried—rather than fruit juice for most of your fruit choices.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

types of fats
Types of Fats
  • Saturated
    • Animal sources
    • Solid at room temperature
  • Unsaturated (poly- or mono-)
    • Vegetable sources
    • Liquid at room temperature

Click icon for info on

fat content of oils

H H H H H H H H H H H H H O

HC-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-OH

H H H H H H H H H H

Web14-06

Web14-07

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

types of fats continued
Types of Fats continued

Click icon for info on

hydrogenationprocess

  • The hydrogenation process used to convert oils into solids produce trans fat, which is just as harmful as saturated fats, if not more so.
  • Trans fats are known to cause increases in LDL cholesterol and have been shown to contribute to the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

fat substitutes
Fat Substitutes
  • Olestra
  • Simplesse
  • Benecol
  • Take Control

What are the dietary implications of these new food products?

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

recommendations for fat consumption
Recommendations for Fat Consumption
  • Dietary Fat Recommendations
    • Less than 10% of calories in diet from saturated fat
    • Total dietary fat between 20-35% of calories
  • Ways to Decrease Intake of Fat
    • Substitute lean meat, fish, poultry, nonfat milk, and other low-fat dairy products for high-fat foods
    • Reduce fried foods & foods high in cholesterol

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

types of protein
Types of Protein
  • Sources of Protein
    • Animal (complete)
      • meats, dairy
    • Vegetable (incomplete)
      • beans, nuts, legumes, grains
  • Types of Amino Acids
    • Nonessential (11) – can be made by body
    • Essential (9) – must be obtained from diet
      • Complete proteins contain all of the essential amino acids

Amino acids linked together

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

protein requirements
Protein Requirements
  • RDA average = .8 g/kg/day
  • RDA athlete = 1.2-1.6 g/kg/day

High levels of protein intake above 2 g/kg/day can be harmful to the body

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

protein guidelines
Protein Guidelines
  • Consume at least 2 servings/day of lean meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products or adequate combination of foods, such as beans, nuts, grains, and rice.
  • Dietary supplements of protein, such as tablets and powders, are NOT recommended.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

dietary recommendations 2 different sets

PRO

PRO (10-15%)

CHO

FAT (30%)

FAT

CHO (55-60%)

PRO

PRO (10-35%)

CHO

FAT (20-35%)

FAT

CHO (45-65%)

Dietary Recommendations (2 different sets)

Lab 14a

Questions:

1. Why do theguidelines differ?

2. What is a “healthy diet”?

3. How do you calculate these percentages?

U.S.D.A.

Institute of

Medicine

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

calorie calculations

vitamins
Vitamins
  • Organic substances that regulate numerous and diverse physiological processes in the body
  • Do not contain calories
  • Two types
    • Fat soluble
    • Water soluble

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

vitamin guidelines
Vitamin Guidelines

Click for info on“anti-oxidants”

  • A balanced diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards.
  • Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may be beneficial.
  • Extra consumption of citrus and other fruits may be beneficial.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

vitamin supplementation
Vitamin Supplementation?
  • Not necessary if diet is healthy
  • Multivitamins are safe (100% RDA)
  • Not all vitamins are “pure”
  • Can be toxic at high doses

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

minerals
Minerals
  • Inorganic elements found in food that are essential to life processes
  • About 25 are essential
  • Classified as major or trace minerals
  • RDA’s have only been determined for 7 minerals

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

mineral guidelines

Click for

more info on minerals

Mineral Guidelines
  • A diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards
  • Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may be beneficial
  • Dietary supplementation of Calcium is beneficial for post-menopausal women
  • Salt should be limited in the diet

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

populations who may benefit from supplementation
Populations Who May Benefit from Supplementation
  • Pregnant/lactating women
  • Alcoholics
  • Elderly
  • Women with severe menstrual losses
  • Individuals on VLCD’s
  • Strict vegetarians
  • Individuals taking medications or with diseases which inhibit nutrient absorption

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

water
Water

Click for more info on water

  • Vital to life
  • Drink at least 8 glasses a day
  • Coffee, tea, and soft drinks should not be substituted for sources of key nutrients, such as low-fat milk, fruit juices, or foods rich in calcium.
  • Limit daily servings of beverages containing caffeine to no more than three.
  • Limit sugared soft drinks; they contain empty calories.
  • If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

sound eating practices
Sound Eating Practices
  • Consistency (with variety) is a good general rule of nutrition.
  • Moderation
  • Minimize reliance on fast foods
  • Minimize your consumption of overly processed foods and foods high in saturated fat or hydrogenated fats.
  • Healthy snacks

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

nutrition physical performance
Nutrition & Physical Performance
  • Complex carbohydrates should constitute as much as 70% of total caloric intake.
  • A higher amount of protein is generally recommended for active individuals (1.2 g/kg of body weight) because some protein is used as an energy source during exercise.
    • Protein levels above 15% of the diet are typically not necessary.
  • Carbohydrate loading and carbohydrate replacement during exercise can enhance sustained aerobic performances.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

nutrition quackery
Nutrition Quackery
  • Ergogenic aids
  • Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (1994)
    • Responsible for an explosion in the sales of products that have not been proven to be effective.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

nutrition summary
Nutrition: Summary
  • Nutrition is important to health and wellness.
  • Moderation and variety are recommended.
  • Some individuals may have additional nutritional needs based on activity level, pregnancy, etc.
  • Fruits and veggies are critical!!

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

web resources
Web Resources

Online Learning Center

"On the Web”pages for Concept

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

supplemental graphics

Supplemental Graphics

Lab Information

Detail on BMI calculations

Graphics on Obesity Trends

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 14a information nutrition analysis
Lab 14a InformationNutrition Analysis
  • Purpose: Compare quality of “favorite diet” with your ideal “healthy diet”
  • Procedure: Select foods from food list (Appendix D or other diet tables) and calculate calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 14a information nutrition analysis cont

Divide the calories

by the total to get

the percentage

Lab 14a InformationNutrition Analysis - cont.

Return to presentation

Making calorie calculations

Calories % of Total Calories

  • Protein 350
  • Fat 800
  • Carbohydrate 1400

Totals 2550

13.7

31.4

54.9

100.0

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 14b information selecting nutritious foods
Lab 14b InformationSelecting Nutritious Foods

Return to presentation

  • Purpose: Evaluate the nutritional quality of your diet
  • Procedure: Record foods consumed for two days on the Daily Diet Record. Calculate calorie intake from list in Appendix C
  • Implications: Rate the quality of the diet according to the Rating Scale.

Click icon to see other food tables

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

fiber
Fiber
  • Soluble - decreases cholesterol levels
    • found in oat bran, fruits and veggies
  • Insoluble - reduces risk of colon cancer
    • found in wheat bran and grains

Recommendation: 25-40g per dayAre you getting enough?

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

ways to get more fiber
Ways to Get More Fiber
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Eat whole grain foods

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

a grain of wheat
A Grain of Wheat

Return to presentation

BRAN

- B vitamins

- minerals

ENDOSPERM

- dietary fiber

- starch

- protein

- some iron and

GERM

B vitamins

- essential fats

- minerals

- vitamins

(B\'s , E and folacin)

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

composition of oils
Composition of Oils (%)

Return to presentation

Type Sat Poly Mono

safflower 9 75 16

sunflower 10 66 24

corn 13 59 28

soybean 14 58 28

sesame 14 42 44

peanut 17 32 51

palm 49 9 42

olive 14 8 78

canola 7 35 58

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

hydrogenation process
Hydrogenation Process

Return to presentation

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

fat soluble vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K
  • Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance)
  • Overdoses can be toxic (A and D)

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

water soluble vitamins
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Consist of B complex and vitamin C
  • Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however, B-6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in unusually large amounts

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

water soluble vitamins45
Water Soluble Vitamins

Return to presentation

  • B-1 (thiamine)
  • B-2 (riboflavin)
  • B-6 (pyridoxine)
  • B-12 (cobalamin)
  • Niacin (nicotinic acid)
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Folic Acid (folacin)
  • Biotin
  • C

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

antioxidant all stars
Antioxidant All-Stars
  • Broccoli
  • Cantaloupe
  • Carrot
  • Kale
  • Mango
  • Pumpkin
  • Red Pepper
  • Spinach
  • Strawberries
  • Sweet potato

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

minerals with established rda guidelines
Minerals with established RDA guidelines

Return to presentation

  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Iodine
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Selenium

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

calcium
Calcium

Return to presentation

  • Important for preventing osteoporosis
  • RDA = 800-1000 mg/day
  • Found in dairy products and vegetablesHigh protein diets leach calcium from bones and promote osteoporosis

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

slide49
Iron

Return to presentation

  • Important component of hemoglobin
  • Iron deficiency is known as anemia(Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue)

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

functions of water
Functions of Water

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  • Comprises about 60% of body weight
  • Chief component of blood plasma
  • Aids in temperature regulation
  • Lubricates joints
  • Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic sac (during pregnancy)
  • Active participant in many chemical reactions

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

caloric content of foods
Caloric Content of Foods

Carbohydrates 4 cal/g

Protein 4 cal/g

Fats 9 cal/g

Alcohol 7 cal/g

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

calorie calculation example
Calorie Calculation (Example)
  • Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes to obtain 20% of her calories from fat:2000 calories x 20% = 400 calories from fat per day400 calories from fat = 44 grams of fat/day

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

what is baloney

80% "fat free”

52 calories / slice

4 grams fat / slice

Calories

=

4 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 36 calories

from fat

Percent of

69%

calories

=

36 cal / 52 cal total =

from fat

What is Baloney?

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

what about sliced turkey

98% "fat free”

30 calories / slice

1 gram fat / slice

Calories

=

1 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 9 calories

from fat

Percent of

30%

calories

=

9 cal / 30 cal total =

from fat

What about Sliced Turkey?

Return to presentation

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

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