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Malignant Catarrhal Fever Symptoms . Jeffrey Musser, DVM, PhD Professor Moritz van Vuuren Suzanne Burnham, DVM Texas A&M University University of Pretoria

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Malignant Catarrhal FeverSymptoms

Jeffrey Musser, DVM, PhD Professor Moritz van Vuuren

Suzanne Burnham, DVM

Texas A&M University University of Pretoria

College of Veterinary Medicine Department of

Veterinary Tropical Diseases

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Host Range

  • The disease can occur in cattle, domesticated buffaloes, a wide range of captive antelopes and deer, and free-living deer.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Host Range

  • Under natural conditions only domestic cattle and deer develop clinical signs

  • MCF has never been reported in free-living wild animals in Africa

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Host Range

  • In zoological collections a wide variety of ruminant species have been reported to develop clinical signs

  • Rabbits can be infected experimentally

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Host Range

  • It was recently confirmed in pigs in Scandinavia

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Reservoir ruminant species

  • Blue wildebeest

  • Black wildebeest

  • Domestic sheep

  • Goats

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Blue Wildebeest

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Black Wildebeest

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Transmission

Neonatal and adolescent wildebeest shed virus

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Transmission from reservoir animals to domestic cattle, deer

contact with calving wildebeest

contact with lambing sheep

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Cattle are more susceptible to

Wildebeest derived MCF

than to the sheep or goat MCF

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Congenital Transmission

Cow will die then later calf will die

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Malignant Catarrhal Fever: Clinical Signs

  • In some cases MCF presents as chronic alopecia and weight loss as with deer infected with the Caprine herpesvirus.

  • However, MCF is typically fatal.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

  • There are many factors that affect the duration of the disease in different species

  • The severity of the clinical symptoms will depend on those factors. Mortality is usually 100% but some animals face weeks of progressive disease

  • For this reasons, once the disease is identified, most elect to euthanized the affected animal.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

  • High fever 106-107°F (41-41.5°C)

  • Depression

  • In deer - sudden death

  • Deer and bison that survive 2-3 days:

    • Hemorrhagic diarrhea

    • Bloody urine

    • Corneal opacity

    • Then death

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

  • The longer the animal survives the course of the disease the more severe the signs become.

  • For example, animals that die acutely may not develop lymphadenopathy or corneal opacity

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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As the disease progresses:

  • Catarrhal inflammation

  • Erosions and exudates in upper respiratory tract, ocular and oral mucosa

  • Swollen lymph nodes

  • Lameness

  • CNS signs (depression, tremors, stupor, hypo-responsive, aggression, convulsions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

  • On average the time to death for European cattle is longer than for deer, bison and water buffalo; usually 7-17 days after the appearance of clinical signs

  • In cattle the swollen lymph nodes and severe eye lesions are more frequent

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

  • Hemorrhagic enteritis and cystitis are more frequently seen in bison and deer than in cattle

  • Skin lesions are common in animals that do not succumb quickly

  • Most eventually die, about 5% recover clinically

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical signs

  • Depressed and VERY SICK

  • Stertorous respiration

  • Enlarged lymph nodes

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

Animals suffer, are painful and cannot breathe well

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

Secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia may be eventual cause of death if not euthanized first

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

Painful swollen eyes

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

Ocular and

nasal discharge

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

“snotsiekte”

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Mucopurulent discharge, crusting occludes the nostril;

animal begins open mouth breathing.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever




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Characteristic of MCF

Early corneal opacity begins

at the limbus

Progresses to total opacity

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs

Severe panophthalmitis, hypopion, corneal erosions are more frequent in cattle

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Severe Ocular lesions

Painful Conjunctivitis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Severe Ocular lesions

Progresses to corneal opacity

beginning at Limbus

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Severe Ocular lesions

Characteristic eye lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Severe Ocular lesions

Characteristic eye lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Severe Ocular lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Oral Lesions

Erosions on gums, dental pad and near teeth

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Oral Lesions

Erosions near the teeth

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Oral Lesions

Necrosis of papillae similar to rinderpest

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Oral Lesions

Erosions here are similar to bluetongue in Africa

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Oral Lesions

Erosions of papillae

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Oral Lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever



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Enlarged and edematous

lymph nodes

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Moist necrotic

dermatitis with

exudation and

encrustations

Skin lesions associated

with both sheep form

and wildebeest derived.

Resembles foot-and-mouth

disease

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Mild diarrhea

sometimes seen

which is black and

tarry, but not

effusive

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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In terminal stages CNS

symptoms: falling, circling,

head pressing, high stepping

convulsions, then death

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Signs in Swine

From a case in Norway:

Symptoms reported as: hyperemic conjunctiva, vomiting, restlessness and anorexia. The rectal temperature was 41° C, the respiratory rate was 33 per minute, and the heart rate was 110 per minute. Despite parenteral antibiotic treatment, the symptoms worsened and the pig died 5 days after onset of disease. Over a short period, three other adult swine in the same herd died after showing similar clinical signs.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Clinical Features Summary

  • Incubation period is LONG – weeks to months

  • Morbidity LOW

  • Clinical illness – weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes, corneal opacity, rhinitis

  • Mortality – 100%

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Diagnosis at Necropsy

  • The disease is systemic and lesions can be found in any organ

  • Inflammation and necrosis of the respiratory, alimentary and urinary mucosa

  • Generalized lymphoid proliferation and necrosis

  • Widespread vasculitis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever




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“button ulcers” 5-10 cm erosions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever



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Lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Multifocal lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Multifocal lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever



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Enlarged lymphoid tissue – everywhere

– looks like lymphoma

Tonsils bulge

Lymph nodes – TOO BIG

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Hemal nodes are prominent

Spleen infiltrated

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Peyer’s patches stand out

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Diagnosis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Diagnosis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Histopathology

T lymphocyte

hyperplasia,

cell necrosis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Histopathology

Severe necrotizing

vasculitis

Perivascular

lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Histopathology

Perivascular lymphoid

infiltration of arterioles

Malignant Catarrhal Fever


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Summary

Think Malignant Catarrhal fever when:

  • Only a few cattle are affected and they die

  • Cattle have been exposed to sheep during lambing season

  • Cattle have severe respiratory symptoms and conjunctivitis with cornel opacity

  • Lesions are on the ventral side of the tongue

Malignant Catarrhal Fever



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