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Malignant Catarrhal Fever Symptoms . Jeffrey Musser, DVM, PhD Professor Moritz van Vuuren Suzanne Burnham, DVM Texas A&M University University of Pretoria

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malignant catarrhal fever symptoms
Malignant Catarrhal FeverSymptoms

Jeffrey Musser, DVM, PhD Professor Moritz van Vuuren

Suzanne Burnham, DVM

Texas A&M University University of Pretoria

College of Veterinary Medicine Department of

Veterinary Tropical Diseases

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

host range
Host Range
  • The disease can occur in cattle, domesticated buffaloes, a wide range of captive antelopes and deer, and free-living deer.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

host range3
Host Range
  • Under natural conditions only domestic cattle and deer develop clinical signs
  • MCF has never been reported in free-living wild animals in Africa

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

host range4
Host Range
  • In zoological collections a wide variety of ruminant species have been reported to develop clinical signs
  • Rabbits can be infected experimentally

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

host range5
Host Range
  • It was recently confirmed in pigs in Scandinavia

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

reservoir ruminant species
Reservoir ruminant species
  • Blue wildebeest
  • Black wildebeest
  • Domestic sheep
  • Goats

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide7

Blue Wildebeest

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide8

Black Wildebeest

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

transmission
Transmission

Neonatal and adolescent wildebeest shed virus

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

transmission from reservoir animals to domestic cattle deer
Transmission from reservoir animals to domestic cattle, deer

contact with calving wildebeest

contact with lambing sheep

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide11

Cattle are more susceptible to

Wildebeest derived MCF

than to the sheep or goat MCF

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

congenital transmission
Congenital Transmission

Cow will die then later calf will die

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

malignant catarrhal fever clinical signs
Malignant Catarrhal Fever: Clinical Signs
  • In some cases MCF presents as chronic alopecia and weight loss as with deer infected with the Caprine herpesvirus.
  • However, MCF is typically fatal.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs
Clinical Signs
  • There are many factors that affect the duration of the disease in different species
  • The severity of the clinical symptoms will depend on those factors. Mortality is usually 100% but some animals face weeks of progressive disease
  • For this reasons, once the disease is identified, most elect to euthanized the affected animal.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs15
Clinical Signs
  • High fever 106-107°F (41-41.5°C)
  • Depression
  • In deer - sudden death
  • Deer and bison that survive 2-3 days:
    • Hemorrhagic diarrhea
    • Bloody urine
    • Corneal opacity
    • Then death

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs16
Clinical Signs
  • The longer the animal survives the course of the disease the more severe the signs become.
  • For example, animals that die acutely may not develop lymphadenopathy or corneal opacity

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

as the disease progresses
As the disease progresses:
  • Catarrhal inflammation
  • Erosions and exudates in upper respiratory tract, ocular and oral mucosa
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Lameness
  • CNS signs (depression, tremors, stupor, hypo-responsive, aggression, convulsions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs18
Clinical Signs
  • On average the time to death for European cattle is longer than for deer, bison and water buffalo; usually 7-17 days after the appearance of clinical signs
  • In cattle the swollen lymph nodes and severe eye lesions are more frequent

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs19
Clinical Signs
  • Hemorrhagic enteritis and cystitis are more frequently seen in bison and deer than in cattle
  • Skin lesions are common in animals that do not succumb quickly
  • Most eventually die, about 5% recover clinically

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs20
Clinical signs
  • Depressed and VERY SICK
  • Stertorous respiration
  • Enlarged lymph nodes

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs21
Clinical Signs

Animals suffer, are painful and cannot breathe well

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs22
Clinical Signs

Secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia may be eventual cause of death if not euthanized first

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs23
Clinical Signs

Painful swollen eyes

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs24
Clinical Signs

Ocular and

nasal discharge

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs25
Clinical Signs

“snotsiekte”

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide26

Mucopurulent discharge, crusting occludes the nostril;

animal begins open mouth breathing.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide29

Characteristic of MCF

Early corneal opacity begins

at the limbus

Progresses to total opacity

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs30
Clinical Signs

Severe panophthalmitis, hypopion, corneal erosions are more frequent in cattle

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

severe ocular lesions
Severe Ocular lesions

Painful Conjunctivitis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

severe ocular lesions32
Severe Ocular lesions

Progresses to corneal opacity

beginning at Limbus

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

severe ocular lesions33
Severe Ocular lesions

Characteristic eye lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

severe ocular lesions34
Severe Ocular lesions

Characteristic eye lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

severe ocular lesions35
Severe Ocular lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

oral lesions
Oral Lesions

Erosions on gums, dental pad and near teeth

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

oral lesions37
Oral Lesions

Erosions near the teeth

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

oral lesions38
Oral Lesions

Necrosis of papillae similar to rinderpest

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

oral lesions39
Oral Lesions

Erosions here are similar to bluetongue in Africa

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

oral lesions40
Oral Lesions

Erosions of papillae

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

oral lesions41
Oral Lesions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide43

Enlarged and edematous

lymph nodes

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide44

Moist necrotic

dermatitis with

exudation and

encrustations

Skin lesions associated

with both sheep form

and wildebeest derived.

Resembles foot-and-mouth

disease

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide45

Mild diarrhea

sometimes seen

which is black and

tarry, but not

effusive

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide46

In terminal stages CNS

symptoms: falling, circling,

head pressing, high stepping

convulsions, then death

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical signs in swine
Clinical Signs in Swine

From a case in Norway:

Symptoms reported as: hyperemic conjunctiva, vomiting, restlessness and anorexia. The rectal temperature was 41° C, the respiratory rate was 33 per minute, and the heart rate was 110 per minute. Despite parenteral antibiotic treatment, the symptoms worsened and the pig died 5 days after onset of disease. Over a short period, three other adult swine in the same herd died after showing similar clinical signs.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

clinical features summary
Clinical Features Summary
  • Incubation period is LONG – weeks to months
  • Morbidity LOW
  • Clinical illness – weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes, corneal opacity, rhinitis
  • Mortality – 100%

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

diagnosis at necropsy
Diagnosis at Necropsy
  • The disease is systemic and lesions can be found in any organ
  • Inflammation and necrosis of the respiratory, alimentary and urinary mucosa
  • Generalized lymphoid proliferation and necrosis
  • Widespread vasculitis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

button ulcers 5 10 cm erosions
“button ulcers” 5-10 cm erosions

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide54

Lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

multifocal lymphoid infiltration
Multifocal lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

multifocal lymphoid infiltration56
Multifocal lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide58

Enlarged lymphoid tissue – everywhere

– looks like lymphoma

Tonsils bulge

Lymph nodes – TOO BIG

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide59

Hemal nodes are prominent

Spleen infiltrated

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

slide60

Peyer’s patches stand out

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

diagnosis
Diagnosis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

diagnosis62
Diagnosis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

histopathology
Histopathology

T lymphocyte

hyperplasia,

cell necrosis

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

histopathology64
Histopathology

Severe necrotizing

vasculitis

Perivascular

lymphoid infiltration

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

histopathology65
Histopathology

Perivascular lymphoid

infiltration of arterioles

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

summary
Summary

Think Malignant Catarrhal fever when:

  • Only a few cattle are affected and they die
  • Cattle have been exposed to sheep during lambing season
  • Cattle have severe respiratory symptoms and conjunctivitis with cornel opacity
  • Lesions are on the ventral side of the tongue

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

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