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Malignant Catarrhal Fever Investigation Dr. Leonard E. Eldridge State Veterinarian Dr. Paul Kohrs Assistant State Veterinarian Dr. Jerry Pospisil Field Veterinarian WSDA Topics for today In-state movement WSDA’s role in disease outbreaks Pathogenic strains and their hosts

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Malignant Catarrhal Fever Investigation

Dr. Leonard E. Eldridge

State Veterinarian

Dr. Paul Kohrs

Assistant State Veterinarian

Dr. Jerry Pospisil

Field Veterinarian

WSDA


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Topics for today

  • In-state movement

  • WSDA’s role in disease outbreaks

  • Pathogenic strains and their hosts

  • MCF characteristics

  • Timeline of Puyallup cases

  • What we know so far

  • Prevention or mitigation of risk


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Duties of State Veterinarian

  • Set protective requirements for animals entering the state

  • Investigate reports of animals not meeting state requirements

  • Investigate and trace reports of exposed and sick animals

  • Identify, control, and eliminate select animal diseases

    • Includes zoonotic diseases (animal diseases that spread to humans)


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Stevens

Ferry

Whatcom

Okanogan

Pend

Oreille

San Juan

VET Region 1

Dr. Jeff Howlett

Skagit

VET Region 4

Dr. Ben Smith

Island

Clallam

Snohomish

Chelan

Douglas

Kitsap

Jefferson

Lincoln

King

Mason

Spokane

Grays Harbor

Grant

VET Region 2

Dr. Jerry Pospisil

Whitman

Kittitas

Adams

Pierce

Thurston

Yakima

Lewis

Pacific

Garfield

Franklin

VET Region 3

Dr. Peter Tran

Columbia

Wahkiakum

Cowlitz

Skamania

Walla Walla

Benton

Asotin

Klickitat

Clark

Field Veterinarian Regions


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Animal Health Requirements

  • Importation into state

    • Entry permit

    • Certificate of veterinary inspection

    • Female cattle vaccinated for brucellosis

    • Negative test for brucellosis on all cattle where there is risk

    • Negative test for tuberculosis

    • Negative Trichomoniasis test or virgin bull statement

    • Official individual animal identification

    • Canada

      • CAN brand

    • Mexico

      • M brand

  • Movement within the state


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WSDA’S Role in Disease Outbreaks

  • Respond to private practitioner concerns

    • Any vesicular disease should be reported

    • Other possible FAD’s should be reported

  • Respond within 4 hours with FADD

  • Either facilitate sample collection and submission or personally collect and send samples

  • Place movement restrictions on animals if deemed appropriate

  • Rule out FAD with confirmation of lab results

  • Non-FAD or program disease will be turned over to private practitioner


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Role of the Animal Health OfficialDuring a Disease Outbreak

  • Stop Disease Spread

    • Quarantine and Movement Restrictions

  • Trace Infected and Exposed Animals

    • Trace In: All animals entering infected premises

    • Trace Out: All animals leaving infected premises

  • Implement Disease Control Measures

    • Humane euthanasia and disposal

    • Cleaning and disinfection

    • Animal disease inspection and investigation

      ALL Require Livestock Traceability


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$ Impact of Losing “Disease-Free” status

  • Loss of Free Status for TB or Brucellosis cost:

    • 10 cents per pound ($50 on 500-pound calf)

    • $8 to $10 per head (each time cattle are tested)

    • $5 to $55 million (in added costs to state)

    • Indemnity value may be lower than animal is worth


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Transporting cattle within WA State

  • Proof of ownership documents are required while transporting cattle on public highways.

    • Brand Inspection Certificate

    • Public Livestock Market (PLM) – “out slip”

      • Buyers are issued an “out slip” for cattle purchased from a livestock market or special sale

  • Certificate of Permit - “haul slip” is your permit for transporting cattle on public highways

    Brand Inspections are also required when cattle leave Washington State


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History

  • MCF in wildebeests in Africa for centuries

  • U.S. cattle since 1920’s

  • First bison case in South Dakota reported in 1973

  • Cases occur worldwide each year

  • 2002: New Jersey exotic theme park

    • AHV-1 diagnosed in Ankoli cattle

  • May 2008 outbreak in Texas


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Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)

Virus Characteristics

  • Herpes virus

  • 10 identified strains- 5 strains have been identified as causing disease

  • Highly adaptive to the carrier host

    (they seldom, if ever, show signs of the disease)

  • Grows very poorly in cell cultures

    • Cannot make vaccine

    • Makes typing the virus difficult

  • DNA virus, so the virus is quite stable against mutation

  • Affects even-toed ungulates


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Geographic Distribution

  • AHV-1 primarily in Africa

    • Carried by wildebeest, hartebeest, topi

    • Also in zoologic and wild animal parks

  • OHV-2 worldwide

    • Carried by domestic and wild sheep and goats


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Geographic Distribution

  • Positive bison have been found in North America (11 states and Canada)

    • Bison very susceptible

      • Idaho outbreak

      • Spokane outbreak

        • Lost 12/50 animals

        • Used TSV2 with some effect??

        • Neighbor ½ mile downwind also lost 2 (cattle) animals consistent with MCF

  • Often misdiagnosed in bison


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Transmission

  • Nose-to-nose contact with sheep is the most efficient method of spread

  • Fomite transmission is well documented

  • Adolescent age lambs shed higher numbers of the virus

  • Seems to peak in late summer or fall when a majority of the lamb crop is 6-9 months old


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Incubation period

  • Average 40-60 days

  • The virus may become latent in infected animals and the disease may appear as long as 20 months later

  • The virus is not very stable outside the host and will only live a few hours without moisture and organic matter


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Human Transmission

  • MCF has not been documented as causing disease in humans

  • Caution at lambing time

    • Equipment used could spread infection to susceptible animals

  • Virus quickly inactivated by sunlight

    • Minimizes risk of fomite spread


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MCF Characteristics

  • Cattle are “dead end” hosts for the Ovine strain.

    • No documented spread from infected cattle to other cattle

  • High mortality in symptomatic cases.

  • Low morbidity - typically very few animals become symptomatic

Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC)

Photo by Fakri Fatima Zohra, WikiMedia


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Head and Eye Form- Early stages

  • Reddened eyelids

  • Bilateral corneal opacity

  • Crusty muzzle, nares

  • Nasal discharge

  • Salivation


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Head and Eye Form- Later stages

  • Erosions on the tongue

  • Erosions on the buccal mucosa


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BVD mucosal disease

Bluetongue

Rinderpest

FMD

Vesicular stomatitis

Physical injury

Salmonellosis

Pneumonia complex

Oral exposure to caustic materials

Mycotoxins

Poisonous plants

Differential Diagnosis


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Treatment

  • Survival is rare

  • Mortality on clinical animals reaches 100%

  • Supportive therapy, antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection


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MCF Outbreak at Puyallup Fair

  • Animals were housed in the same barn for the last 5 days of the fair (Sept 17-21)

  • 133 cattle in the barn (FFA, open class and display cows)

  • Considerable concern regarding the “animals of the world display” (most were susceptible species)


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Timeline

  • November 3rd - 43 days after the last day of the fair- the first case occurred in Lynden, WA. The animal died on Nov 6th and was necropsied and samples were submitted to WADDL

  • Diagnosis of MCF confirmed on Nov 10th.

  • Reported to State Veterinarian’s office Nov 11th

  • An animal in Arlington, WA that had been at the fair died and was sampled Nov. 11th and confirmed MCF positive on Nov. 14th.

  • First meeting with Fair Officials on Nov. 14th.


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Timeline

  • The next week (17th-21 of Nov)

    • Second and third animals at Arlington died

    • Another display cow housed with the first unconfirmed case earlier was confirmed positive

    • Calf from the positive cow in Elma died and was confirmed positive

    • More positive cases at the index farm in Lynden (total of five with 4 confirmed)

    • Another display cow from Sequim is confirmed as well

  • Negative to Foreign Animal Disease on Nov. 19th.

  • Meeting with Fair Officials on Nov. 19th


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Timeline

  • That weekend (Nov 22-23), more cases were reported in Fife, Elma and ‘display cows’ were reported dying with MCF symptoms in Lynden and Yelm. Though not confirmed, these cases were highly suspicious.

  • The veterinarians that examined the animals became very good at recognizing positive cases.


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Timeline

  • Week of Nov 24-28

    • 2 display animals showed MCF symptoms located in Buckley. One animal died and confirmed MCF, second animal recovered - not MCF.

    • One animal from the Napavine area died showing MCF symptoms, later confirmed MCF.

    • A sixth animal at the index farm in Lynden died on Monday Dec 1st confirmed MCF.


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Timeline

  • Animal reported dead with MCF symptoms on December 6th from Castle Rock- not confirmed.

  • Second animal from Castle Rock farm died on December 28th and confirmed positive.

  • Animal in Olalla showed symptoms for nearly 30 days before dying on January 4th, confirmed positive.


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Timeline

  • Update Case numbers

    • 19 confirmed MCF

    • 5 probable suspicious deaths

  • Last reported case Feb 7th


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Timeline

  • Summary of the Veterinarian Interviews on cases of MCF

  • Case information was obtained by interview for 24 head of cattle. The affected cattle were 22 months of age on average with a range of 5 to 60 months.

  • Many breeds were represented and included beef and dairy animals:

  • 4Herefords, 3 Guernseys, 3 Holsteins, 2 Brown Swiss, 1 Jersey, 2 Simmental cross 1crossbred, 7 Angus and 1Milking Shorthorn

  • The dates of death by week showed that the peak occurred in the week of November 11th; 9 weeks after showing at the fair


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What we know

  • This outbreak occurred at the Puyallup Fair, but it could happen anywhere animals (sheep and cattle) are commingled

  • Every one of the cases that were confirmed were cattle exhibited at the Puyallup Fair

  • Foreign Animal Diseases were ruled out with Plum Island testing


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What we know so far

  • The weather (humidity 80-100% for the whole event), age of the sheep, time of year, and ventilation patterns may have combined to produce the “Perfect Storm” for this disease to be transmitted

  • Stress


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The Perfect Storm

  • This event will change the way fairs do business for a long time to come.

  • This is a wake-up call for everyone; not just fairs and regulatory personnel, EVERYONE NEEDS TO BE ALERT. This could have just as easily been Foot and Mouth Disease.

  • Officials say its not if but when we experience a FAD


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Notification

  • The Puyallup Fair sent a letter to open class exhibitors and communicated with FFA and 4H chapter advisors.

  • Bovine Issues Working Group

  • WSDA sent a letter to all large animal practitioners in the state.

  • WSDA sent a letter to all bovine and ovine producers who had a registered state premises.

  • WSDA contacted WDF, WCA, CPOW and Feeders


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Laboratory Testing

  • WSDA and WSU paid for preliminary testing until confirmed diagnosis

  • USDA Agriculture Research Service is paying for all follow up MCF testing

  • Washington FFA Foundation, P.O. Box 14633, Tumwater, WA  98511.

    • Note: donation is for MCF fund


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Biosecurity

  • For some diseases, the risk for transmission is greater through one route over another. However, having all the prevention steps in place will reduce the risks for a number of diseases at the same time

  • Although mentioned as a potential fomite, the role that people play in disease transmission cannot be emphasized enough. People wear the boots, touch the animals, and use the equipment


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Biosecurity 101

  • Co-mingled animals at any collection point are a risk

  • Separate infected and carrier animals from susceptible species.

    • Assume sheep are carriers

    • Goats maybe sporadic

  • Biosecurity

    • Species dedicated clothing and equipment

    • Wash hands before and after handling animals

    • Common sense, foot baths, insect control and education


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Prevention and Control

  • Avoid exposing cattle, bison and deer during parturition.

  • Zoological parks: Introduce only sero negative animals

  • No vaccine available

  • Possible value in intranasal vaccines with interferon production?


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Take Home Messages

  • Don’t mix species at any collection point

  • Call quickly with suspicious disease symptoms

    • Rule out FAD

    • More rapid containment

  • MCF may not be as rare as we thought it was-prevention is the key

  • Communication is key to rapid containment



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