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West African Trading Kingdoms. West African Trading Kingdoms. Ghana. Ghana. As trade began to increase with the use of camels across the northern part of the Sahara Desert, Ghana rulers began to tax goods carried through their lands. What were the two most important goods traded?.

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Ghana

Izydorczak

slide4

Ghana

As trade began to increase with the use of camels across the northern part of the Sahara Desert, Ghana rulers began to tax goods carried through their lands.

What were the two

most important goods traded?

Gold and Salt

Izydorczak

slide5

salt

Ghana

As Ghana became a powerful empire, it converted to Islam.

As Ghana fell to the Almorvids of N. Africa, they never really regained its former power

Izydorczak

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Mali

Izydorczak

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Mali

Sundiata became Mali’s first Emperor.

Sundiata was a great military and political leader.

Izydorczak

Mali rulers adopted the Muslim religion.

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Mansa Musa

Izydorczak

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Mansa Musa

  • Made Mali twice the size of the old empire Ghana.
  • Appointed governors to help him rule
  • Devoted Muslim (built two mosques)
  • One was built in Timbuktu were it became the leading center of Muslim learning
  • Ibn Battuta later traveled through Mali and described it as peaceful

Izydorczak

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Mansa Musa

Mansa Musa’ Hajj to Mecca

Mansa Musa went through Egypt.

He gave away so much gold, he ruined the economy of Egypt for ten years!

Izydorczak

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Effects Outside Africa

Decline of Mali

  • Musa’s hajj brought Mali to attention of Europe
  • Mali began to appear on European maps for first time
  • Within a century, Europeans began to search West Africa for source of Mali’s riches
  • Rulers following Musa not as strong
  • Several peoples broke away, set up independent kingdoms
  • Mali also invaded from outside
  • Among invaders, Tuareg
  • 1433, captured Timbuktu, a blow from which Mali never recovered

Pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Musa and entourage impressed people with their lavish clothing, generous gifts
  • Trip to Mecca led to great changes in Mali
  • Returning to kingdom, Musa brought artists, architects who designed beautiful mosques; also built schools, libraries where people could study Qu’ran, other Islamic writings

Izydorczak

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Songhai

Izydorczak

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Songhai

  • Songhai
  • Songhai existed as small kingdom for centuries, paid tribute to Ghana, Mali
  • Grew wealthy trading goods along Niger River
  • Came in contact with Muslim traders; Islam became influence on culture
  • Rise of Songhai
  • 1460s, rulers had become strong, rich enough to take control of former empire of Mali
  • Songhai’s rise under leadership of military leader, sunni, named Sunni Ali
  • Military Leadership
  • Ali’s first act as leader: took Timbuktu from the Tuareg
  • Led number of campaigns against neighboring peoples to build empire
  • Military success came from army of skilled cavalry, navy of war canoes
  • Conquered new territories, replaced local leaders with Ali’s own followers

Izydorczak

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Songhai

Asia Muhammad

Izydorczak

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Songhai

  • Askia Muhammad
  • Songhai’s culture reached height under Askia Muhammad
  • Reign considered to be golden age
  • During 35 years he ruled, Askia Muhammad expanded Songhai, strengthened its government
  • Pilgrimage
  • Askia Muhammad, Songhai’s first Muslim ruler
  • Islam had been introduced earlier; Sunni Ali never became Muslim
  • To show commitment, Askia Muhammad decided to make pilgrimage to Mecca
  • Traveled through Egypt, gained support of Muslim rulers

Izydorczak

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Trade Resumed

Control, Decline

  • During pilgrimage, Askia Muhammad made contact with traders from North Africa
  • Trans-Saharan trade that had slowed after fall of Mali resumed once again
  • Increased commerce made Songhai very wealthy kingdom
  • Askia Muhammad used wealth to once again make Timbuktu center of culture, Islamic scholarship
  • To secure control of trade, Askia Muhammad extended Songhai’s borders north into desert, home of the Tuareg
  • Did not want raiders to interfere with traveling merchants
  • Reformed government, built offices in capital city of Gao to oversee trade, agriculture, military
  • Eventually overthrown by son
  • By 1591 empire conquered by Morocco

Songhai

Results of Pilgrimage

Izydorczak