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The Holocaust
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  1. The Holocaust and The Sunflower by Simon Wiesenthal

  2. Nazi Party Hitler Elected Chancellor of Germany: 30 January, 1933 The Holocaust

  3. Hitler • Became popular by using: • Propaganda • Nationalism • Anti-Semitism • was incredibly charismatic

  4. Propaganda • Posters, films, books • Children easier to influence • Hitler Youth • Teaching “racial theory” in classrooms • Children’s Books • More than 100,000 copies sold in 1930s • “Don’t Trust a Fox in a Green Meadow Or the Word of a Jew” • Slogans like “Judas the Jew betrayed Jesus the German to the Jews” recited in the classroom

  5. Ancient symbol >3000 years old Original word “svastika” comes from Sanskrit meaning: To be Good Used mostly with positive meanings Countries that used the Swastika as a symbol: China England Germany Greece India UNITED STATES History of Swastika

  6. The Nazis & The Swastika • Nazi Party formally adopted symbol in 1920. • Hitler designed the flag, choosing red, black and white because those were the colors of the original German flag. • Symbolized the “Aryan (Master) Race” since the mid-19th century

  7. Kristallnacht • “Night of Broken Glass” • Throughout Germany • November 9-10, 1938 Jewish holy texts destroyed during Kristallnacht Jewish stores destroyed

  8. Oberramstadt, Germany • Local synagogue burns during Kristallnacht while firefighters ignore it to “save” a nearby house. Bystanders watch as it is destroyed.

  9. Boerneplatz: burning ; one wall remaining

  10. Concentration Camps • 6acknowledged German camps • Located in occupied Poland • 3.6-4.6 million killed • 80% Jews • ½ of all Jews killed during Holocaust • Almost complete Jewish population of Poland. Ruins at Birkenau: chimneys

  11. Poland=highest population of Jews in Europe Easier to hide their crimes from German citizens and others Easier to transport there Why Poland? ~Plaque at Birkenau

  12. Who was targeted? • Gypsies (300,000-500,000) • Mentally or Physically Handicapped • Homosexuals • Political Opposition Leaders • Socialists • Communists • Jehovah's Witnesses • ANYONE who disagreed with Hitler’s beliefs or was different than their ideal

  13. Camp Death Tolls Maly Trostenets: >60,000 Chelmno: >152,000 Majdanek: 78,000-235,000 SobibÓr: >250,000 Belzec: >436,000 Jasenovac: 500,000-840,000 Treblinka: >800,000

  14. Auschwitz: ~1,400,000

  15. Auschwitz Complex • Auschwitz I • Administrative Regional Headquarters • Torture Camp (~70,000 killed) • Auschwitz II Birkenau • Death Camp (>1 million killed) • Auschwitz III Monowitz (Buna-Werke) • Work Camp • ~40 Additional Satellite Camps

  16. Execution Wall Gas Chambers & Crematorium Block 11 Loot Storage Camp Kitchen A Section of Barracks Buildings To Birkenau

  17. Smoke from Crematoria V Execution Area Railway Cars Trenches Prisoner Formations

  18. Auschwitz Front gate of Auschwitz I. “Work makes one free.” Door to Gas Chamber. “Harmful Gas! Entering endangers your life!”

  19. Auschwitz II Entrance to Auschwitz II; commonly known as “Auschwitz.” Main purpose of the camp: extermination

  20. ~700 prisoners attempted to escape from Auschwitz ~300 were successful 1 revolt was planned… …Hundreds escaped… If an escape was made, 10 people would be randomly selected by SS officers… …All were captured, tortured, then killed. …and killed to discourage others from attempting an escape.

  21. Photos from Auschwitz Corpses of women on Block 11 (torture block) Mountain of shoes taken from new arrivals Execution Wall: 20,000 killed

  22. Barracks (TL)--Prisoners’ Clothes (BL)--Bathroom Facilities (TR)--Bunks (BR)

  23. Ruins of Crematory II Ruins of Crematory III Crematory

  24. Simon Wiesenthal (1908-2005) • Born on December 31, 1908 in Buczacz, Ukraine • Wiesenthal’s father was killed in WWI; mother remarried • Was denied admission into the Polytechnic Institute in Lvov due to “quota restrictions on Jewish Students” • Earned his Architectural Engineering degree from the Technical University of Prague in 1932

  25. Wiesenthal Background, cont. • Married Cyla Mueller in 1936 • Step-father arrested by secret police, died in prison and step-brother shot • Simon saved himself, mother and wife from deportation to Siberia by bribing a guard • Escaped execution by the Nazis with the help of a former employee

  26. Concentration Camps • First: Janowska (with Cyla) • Forced labor: repair Eastern Railroad • Mother sent to Belzec (death camp) • By 1942, most of Simon and Cyla’s family were dead (total of 89 family members killed) • Simon was able to get false papers for Cyla to escape the camp in 1942 • Since she was blonde, she was never identified as a Jew or sent back to a camp

  27. Simon’s Camps, Cont. • Escaped Janowska in 1943 • Caught and sent back in 1944 • 1 of 34 prisoners (out of 149,000 originally) to move west with Nazis as they abandoned Janowska • Trek west took Simon to: • Plaszow • Gross-Rosen • Buchenwald • Mauthausen

  28. 4th Camp: Buchenwald 3rd Camp: Gross-Rosen Where Mother was sent & killed 2nd Camp: Plaszow 1st Camp: Janowska Lvov— where he lived 5th Camp: Mauthausen Liberated

  29. Liberated • From: Mauthausen • By: 11th Armored Division of the Third U.S. Army on May 5, 1945 • Weighed less than 100 pounds

  30. After the Holocaust • Both Cyla and Simon thought the other was dead… • Found each other late in 1945 • Daughter was born in 1946 • Became known as the “Nazi Hunter”

  31. Life’s Work • Devoted himself to finding Nazis and getting them convicted for their crimes • Responsible for bringing almost 1,100 Nazis to justice • Including: • Adolf Eichmann(administrator of the slaughter of the Jews) • Franz Murer(“The Butcher of Wilno”) • Erich Rajakowitsch(in charge of “death transports” in Holland)

  32. Novels • The Murderers Among Us • Simon’s memoir; made into a movie • Sails of Hope • The Sunflower: On The Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness • Max and Helen • Krystyna • Every Day Remembrance Day • Justice Not Vengeance

  33. Achievements “I want people to know the Nazis weren’t able to kill millions of people and get away with it.” ~Simon Wiesenthal • Honorary British Knighthood • Presidential Medal of Freedom • Dutch Freedom Medal • UN League for the Help of Refugees Award • US Congressional Gold Medal • French Legion of Honor • Founded the Simon Wiesenthal Center • Museum of Tolerance “…You believe in God and life after death. I also believe. Who we come to the other world and meet the millions of Jews who died in the camps and they ask us, ‘What have you done?,’ there will be many answers. You will say, ‘I became a jeweler,’ Another will say, ‘I have smuggled coffee and American cigarettes,’ Another will say, ‘I built houses,’ But I will say, ‘I did not forget you’.” ~Wiesenthal To name a few…

  34. (Day 2)Terms You Should Know There are many words and terms in The Sunflower that might be unfamiliar to you…here’s a glossary of what they mean, so when you see them, you will understand what they are talking about… you will be tested over these words!

  35. Literally means “Destruction by Fire” Also used to refer to Nazi’s ethnic cleansing from 1933-1945 Holocaust

  36. The study of divine things or religious truth; divinity Theology Michelangelo: The Sistine Chapel

  37. Monotheistic (one God) religion of the Jews, having its ethical, ceremonial, and legal foundation in the precepts of the Old Testament and in the teachings and commentaries of the rabbis as found chiefly in the Talmud Judaism

  38. Prejudice against Jews “Semite”=Jewish person “Anti”-Against Nazi Germany had an official policy against Jewish people Anti-Semitism

  39. A person who is a “non-Jew” A Christian is a Gentile Gentile

  40. Believes there could be a higher power, but is not sure; doesn’t know what to believe Agnostic

  41. Enjoyment of being cruel; taking pleasure in causing pain Sadists

  42. An elite quasi-military unit that served as Hitler’s personal guard and as a special security force SS

  43. Nazi Secret Police (organized in 1933); notorious for its brutal methods Gestapo

  44. Nazi concentration camp prisoner who was given privileges in return for supervising prisoner work gangs; often brutal to fellow inmates Kapo

  45. Russian deserters or prisoners who had enlisted of service under the Germans; used as a derogatory term. Askari

  46. A non-Jewish Caucasian; “master race”; blonde, blue eyed, athletic Aryan Hmm…

  47. a section of a city in which all Jews were required to live Ghetto Building a wall in Warsaw to divide the “Aryan side” from the Jewish Ghetto

  48. All that’s left of the Wall

  49. “HJ” (Hitler Jugend) Future “Aryan supermen” Teaches young boys to fight for the Third Reich and be loyal to Nazi Germany Hitler Youth