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HU 121 History of Engineering and Technology
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HU 121 History of Engineering and Technology

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  1. HU 121 History of Engineering and Technology Pharos University in Alexandria Faculty of Engineering Lect6 Prof. Dr. Abdelsamie Moet Fall 2013/14 Steam and Internal Combustion Engines

  2. Steam Engine: Definition • A steam engine is a heatengine that converts steam energy into mechanical motion. • Steam may be produced by combustion or no-combustion heat. • Combustionheat sources include: • Hydrocarbon (Oil, Gas and Coal), • Biomass. • Non-combustionheat sources include: • Solar, • Nuclear or • Geothermal. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  3. Evolution of Steam Engines 2010 Steam Turbine 1629 Giovanni Branca 600 Years 1551 Taqi al-Din 100 BC: the Aeolpile HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  4. 100 BC: the Aeolpile • Hero of Alexandria, developed the "aeolipile”. • It consisted of a boiler, two bent tubes mounted to a sphere. • Steam coming from the boiler entered through the two tubes. • The steam then exited through the bent tubes on the sphere, causing it to rotate. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  5. Steam Engines by Taqi al-din and Branca • In 1551, Taqi al-Din was the first to describe steam turbine device in his book “Al-Turuq al-saniyyafi al-alat al-ruhaniyya” (The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines). • Later in 1629Giovanni Branca described a related device. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  6. Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf al-Shami تقي الدين محمد بن معروف الشامي, • (1526–1585) was an Ottoman Muslim polymath: He received his education in Cairo, Egypt where he studied astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and Islamic law. • Lived in Damascus, Cairo and Istanbul. • He was the author of more than 90 books on a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy, clocks, engineering, mathematics, mechanics, optics and philosophy HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  7. One of these methods is to have at the end of the spit a wheel with vanes, Opposite the wheel place a hollow pitcher made of copper with a closed head and full of water. The nozzle of the pitcher is placed opposite the vanes of the wheel. Kindle fire under the pitcher and steam will exit from its nozzle in a restricted form and it will turn the vane wheel. When the pitcher becomes empty of water bring close to it cold water in a basin and let the nozzle of the pitcher dip into the cold water. The heat will cause all the water in the basin to be attracted into the pitcher and the [the steam] will start rotating the vane wheel again.” Taqi al-din Steam Engine:as described in his book “Al-Turuq al-saniyyafi al-alat al-ruhaniyya” HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  8. 1629: Branca’s • In 1629 an Italian engineer, Giovanni Branca, described a stamping mill. • A jet nozzle directed steam onto a horizontally mounted turbine wheel, which then turned an arrangement of gears that operated the stamping mill. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  9. 1687: Newton’s Wagon • Newton attempted to put his newly formulated laws of motion to the test. • He tried to propel a wagon by directing steam through a nozzle pointed rearward • Steam was produced by a boiler mounted on the wagon. • Due to lack of power from the steam, this vehicle didn't operate. But he conceived “moving” engine HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  10. The London Steam Carriage • was an early steam-powered road vehicle constructed by Richard Trevithick in 1803 • The world's first self-propelled passenger-carrying vehicle. • Trevithick later developed a steam locomotive on rails. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  11. Concept of Uniflow Steam Engine • Schematic animation of a uniflow steam engine. • The valves are controlled by the rotating camshaft at the top. • High pressure steam enters, and exhausts. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  12. Internal combustion engine • converts the energy of a fuel-air mixture burning within a combustion chamber into mechanical energy.Reciprocating internal combustion engine is an engine, in which burning process occurs within a cylinder equipped with a piston driven by the pressure of the combustion gases. • The gas pressure force is transmitted to the crankshaft linked to the piston by means of a connecting rod. • The crank mechanism transforms the alternating linear motion of the piston into the rotation of the shaft. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  13. The four-stroke cycle • Intake: sucking the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder. • Compression: compressing the gaseous fuel-air mixture. The compression causes pressure and temperature increase of the gas in the cylinder. • Ignition fuel-air mixture is ignited and fuel combustion starts. Combustion increases the gas pressure and temperature. In the gasoline (petrol) engines ignition is as a result of a spark produced by the spark plug. • Exhaust: forcing the combustion gases out of the cylinder. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  14. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  15. Steam Turbine • A steam turbine consists of one or more rotors (rotating discs) mounted on a drive shaft, alternating with stators (static discs) fixed to the turbine casing. • The rotors have a blades at the outer edge. • Steam acts upon these blades, producing rotary motion. • The stator blades redirect the steam flow onto the next rotor stage. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  16. Jet Engine • A fan in the front sucks airin. • A compressor raises the pressure of the air. • The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. • The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle, at the back of the engine. • As the jets of gas shoot backward, the engine and the aircraft thrust forward. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  17. Jet Engine Animation HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  18. Review Question • Present a brief timeline of the steam engine. • Specify the design concept used by Taqi al-din in his steam engine. • Describe “Newton’s steam wagon, identify its limitation and its contribution to the development of engines. • Compare steam engine and internal combustion engine. • Outline the concept of “uniflow” steam engine. • Describe the basic components of a historical steam engine, modern steam engine and a jet engine. HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines

  19. End HU121_Lect6_SteamEngines