Parkinson s law
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Parkinson’s Law. Workers adjust their pace to the work available (If there’s less work, they’ll work more slowly…). Intended Message Perceived Message. Barriers to communication. Prior expectations ; different starting points (prior knowledge / experience ) Inaccurate inferences

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Parkinson s law
Parkinson’s Law

Workers adjust their pace to the work available

(If there’s less work, they’ll work more slowly…)

Intended message perceived message
Intended MessagePerceived Message

Barriers to communication
Barriers to communication

  • Prior expectations; different starting points (prior knowledge/experience)

  • Inaccurate inferences

  • Differing perceptions of words

  • Conflicting information

  • Noise

    • physical

    • emotional

Barriers to communication1
Barriers to communication

  • Forgetfulness

  • Information overload

  • Haste in prepping message

  • Ignoring nonverbal cues

  • Close-mindedness; intolerance

  • Poor listening habits

  • Learning philosophy: “Ways of Knowing”

Ways of knowing
Ways of Knowing

  • Received knowers

  • Subjective knowers

  • Procedural knowers

  • Constructed knowers

Received knowers
Received Knowers

“Knowers who depend on listening and external authority for knowledge…”

  • rote-mode learning

  • learn from experts

  • information is right or wrong

Subjective knowers
Subjective Knowers

“Knowers who depend entirely on internal resources for valuing and knowing…”

  • experiential learning

  • knowledge is personal and private

  • feelings are important

  • often reject “expert” authority

Procedural knowers
Procedural Knowers

“Knowers who obtain knowledge by applying objective, logical, rational procedures…”

  • need to see evidence

  • reason and common sense valued highly

  • knowledge is impersonal

  • experts only as good as their arguments

Constructed knowers
Constructed Knowers

“Knowers who construct their own meaning. Knowledge is contextual; subjective and objective ways of knowing are integrated…”

  • complex, balanced approach

  • knowledge is constructed

  • value and integrate expert advice, feelings, personal experience, reason

Improving communication as senders
Improving Communication as Senders

  • Know the audience

  • Adjust message to their prior knowledge, experience, readiness, literacy

  • Adjust to their way of knowing

    • establish expertise

    • provide hands-on activities

    • provide relevant examples

    • show logic

  • Personalize message

Improving communication as senders1
Improving Communication as Senders

  • Test: formative evaluation

  • Proofread!!

  • Get someone else to proofread!

    • Spellcheck, but don’t rely on spellcheck

      “The demonstrators were attached by vicious policy dogs…”

Parkinson s law

“I have a spelling checker,It came with my PC;It plainly marks four my revueMistakes I cannot sea.I’ve run this poem threw it,I’m sure your please too no,Its letter perfect in it’s weight,My checker tolled me sew.--Author unknownSource: Hope Health Letter, Sept. 1992

Writing for low literate readers
Writing for Low Literate Readers

  • Carefully craft your sentences, paragraphs

    • use simple words

    • active, not passive voice

    • be positive, not negative

    • use organizing strategies: headings, grouped information, highlighted info

Writing for low literate readers1
Writing for Low Literate Readers

  • Watch your style

    • useful pictures


    • use text and white space purposefully

  • Stick to what is important

    • be concrete, not abstract

    • give examples

Active learning
Active Learning

Actual experience

Simulations, role-playing

90% of say & do

Evaluate, analyze, create, design

Give a talk

Discussion participation

70% of say

See demo

Field trip, exhibits, videos

50% of hear & see

Demonstrate, apply, practice

View charts,


30% of see


Define, describe, list, explain

20% of hear


10% of read

T 16-1, p. 523