brain gain vs brain drain a case study of pakistan n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
BRAIN GAIN vs. BRAIN DRAIN: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
BRAIN GAIN vs. BRAIN DRAIN: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

BRAIN GAIN vs. BRAIN DRAIN: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 200 Views
  • Uploaded on

BRAIN GAIN vs. BRAIN DRAIN: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN. Safwan A. Khan, Vaqar Ahmed. Migration and Development: Emerging Debates. Balanced growth theory ( Haas, 2012) Migration  development of human capital Reverse transfers of money, knowledge, best practices, technology etc.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'BRAIN GAIN vs. BRAIN DRAIN: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN' - zuwena


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
migration and development emerging debates
Migration and Development: Emerging Debates
  • Balanced growth theory (Haas, 2012)
    • Migration  development of human capital
    • Reverse transfers of money, knowledge, best practices, technology etc.
  • Asymmetric development theory (Haas, 2012)
    • Migration  underdevelopment of the sending country
    • Brain drain
  • Migration and development: no relationship (Skeldon, 2012)
the case of pakistan
The Case of Pakistan
  • Average growth in annual emigration flows (1970-2011): 7%
research approach
Research Approach
  • Data
    • Pakistan Economic Survey
    • World Development Indicators
    • Bureau of Emigration & Overseas Employment
  • Theory triangulation
    • As on previous slide
  • Methodological
    • Qualitative methods (Key informant interviews)
    • Quantitative methods (Time-series analysis)
migration patterns in pakistan
Migration Patterns in Pakistan

GDP growth and emigration (% change)

slide10

The number of overseas Pakistanis (2010)

Source: Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment (2010)

time series analysis
Time-series Analysis
  • 3 SLS estimation (Foldvari et. al, 2012)
  • Variables used
    • GDP per capita (lny)
    • Physical capital stock (lk)
    • Annual emigration numbers (ltm)
    • Literacy rate (lr)
  • Period covered
    • 1972-2011
slide12

Model specification

lnyt = β10 + β11lnkt + β12tmt + β13lrt + u1,t

lnkt = β20 + β21lnyt + β22tmt + β23lrt + u2,t

tmt = β30 + β31lnyt + β32lnkt + β33lrt + u3,t

lrt = β40 + β41lnyt + β42lnkt + β43tmt + u4,t

regression results
Regression Results
  • Effect on GDP per capita
slide14

Effect on capital stock

  • Effect on migration numbers
migration development cross cutting themes
Migration & Development: Cross-cutting Themes
  • Overseas exposure and training: qualified diasporas
  • Japan: Knowledge and technology transfers due to increased migration
  • Globalized citizenry
  • Lack of economic opportunities  migration away from the country
  • Pakistani exports 20% higher owing to Pak diasporas
labor mobility and development
Labor Mobility and Development
  • The case of illegal migrants: over 33 million in EU
  • Bilateral readmission policies being undertaken by EU to address illegal migration
  • The EU model of increased labor mobility and increased economic activity
  • Two-way migration for reverse transfers and development
  • Malaysia: improved markets  lower migration
slide19

Cluster phenomenon: concentration in sectors of comparative advantages rather than subsidies

  • Exchange programs can be more beneficial for brain gain
  • EU reintegration support fund: to facilitate migrant settlement in home country; run by NGOs instead of the GoP
remittances development
Remittances & Development
  • Higher remittances  inflationary pressures  poverty
  • Remittance flows only second to export earnings
  • Remittance spending  consumption goods and investment goods
  • Use of remittance flows: financing of CAD  less available for expenditure on social services
slide21

Positive effect of remittances (Ahmed et al., 2010)

    • GDP growth
    • Household expenditure
    • Real investment
    • Poverty
    • Income inequality
  • But need to be aware of ‘Dutch Disease’
conflict migration
Conflict & Migration
  • Push and pull effects of migration
  • Karachi: conflict  push migration  flight of capital
  • FATA: conflict  pull migration  source of livelihoods
case studies on returning migrants
Case Studies on Returning Migrants
  • Faculty at various public and private educational institutions
  • Shifa International
  • Omar Saif (SMSall)
  • Centaurus
  • Rozee.pk
future outlook
Future Outlook
  • 2014 withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan  influx of Afghan migrants
  • Push migration likely over the next 5 years  flight of talent
  • Competitive markets  opportunities for commercial investments by diasporas
    • China
    • India
policy implications
Policy Implications
  • Skills training for manpower export  high end skills
  • Too narrow a focus on remittances alone  engaging Diaspora in knowledge, ideas and technology transfer
  • Easier transition for returning migrants  conducive business environment
  • Diasporas  opportunities for export markets
  • Competitive markets where Diaspora can enter into Joint Ventures: ASEAN economies, China, India
thank you safwan@sdpi org vaqar@sdpi org
Thank you

safwan@sdpi.org, vaqar@sdpi.org