BRAIN GAIN vs. BRAIN DRAIN: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN. Safwan A. Khan, Vaqar Ahmed. Migration and Development: Emerging Debates. Balanced growth theory ( Haas, 2012) Migration development of human capital Reverse transfers of money, knowledge, best practices, technology etc.
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Safwan A. Khan, Vaqar Ahmed
GDP growth and emigration (% change)
Source: Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment (2010)
lnyt = β10 + β11lnkt + β12tmt + β13lrt + u1,t
lnkt = β20 + β21lnyt + β22tmt + β23lrt + u2,t
tmt = β30 + β31lnyt + β32lnkt + β33lrt + u3,t
lrt = β40 + β41lnyt + β42lnkt + β43tmt + u4,t
1970s and 1980s: Loss in production quality as qualified personnel moved abroad
Cluster phenomenon: concentration in sectors of comparative advantages rather than subsidies