Carl Rogers “. . . the most wonderful miracle in the world took place. .”
Subjective Experiences • Inner reality more important than objective reality • Inner experiences • Conscious experiences • Experiences that can be verbalized or imagined • Unconscious experiences • Experiences that cannot be verbalized or imagined
Self-Actualizing Tendency • Innate motive toward fulfillment of our potentials • Evidence • Rat and human studies • Evolution • “Innate goodness”
So why do people do bad things? • Infants perceive their experiences as reality
Uninhibited by the evaluations of others • All behavior directed toward satisfying need for SA • Organismic Valuing Process • SA is the criterion used to make judgments of worth
As we get older. . . . • Start to experience a need for positive regard • Satisfying the needs for others satisfies this need
Social self Created through contact with others True self
Social self Prevents us from getting into touch with our true self True self
Social self Leads to “conditions of worth” True self
So why do people do bad things? • Social self hinders movement toward SA • Not behaving like true self causes anxiety • Anxiety causes defense mechanisms
So why do people do bad things? Psychotic
Positive Development • Avoid conditions of worth • Unconditional positive regard • Congruence between true self and experiences
Fully Functioning Person • Open to experience • Characterized by existential living • Trust their organisms • Are creative • Live rich lives
Abraham Maslow “She kissed back and then life began.”
Self-Actualizing Tendency • Innate motive toward fulfillment of our potentials • Environment can cause problems
Needs • Can be biological or instinctive • A state of affairs which, if present, would improve the well being of the person • Example: food
Needs • An unsatisfied need will dominate an individual's thoughts and behaviors • Once a need is satisfied it no longer has as much influence on a person
Example Think about food, fantasizing about a big meal Thoughts and Fantasies Have not eaten Need for food Hunger Deficit Need Motive Behaviors Go to store, buy food, bring it home, cook it
Group Activity Thoughts and Fantasies Deficit Need Motive Behaviors
Needs • What needs are basic? • Physical • Food, water, air, etc. • Safety • freedom from threat, danger, etc.
Needs • What needs are basic? • Social / Belonging • desire for affiliation, beloning, etc. • Self-Esteem • desire for self-confidence, recognition, respect, etc.
Needs • What needs are basic? • Self-Actualization • “to become everything one is capable of becoming”
Needs • Which needs are more salient to survival? • There is an order that these needs typically occur • Evolutionary explanation
Need Hierarchy Theory Physiological Needs
Need Hierarchy Theory Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Need Hierarchy Theory Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Need Hierarchy Theory Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Need Hierarchy Theory Self-Actualization Needs Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Need Hierarchy Theory • 1) Behavior is dominated by the needs that are unfulfilled • 2) Individuals will satisfy the most basic needs first and move up the hierarchy • 3) Basic needs have higher priority than higher needs
Group Activity Self-Actualization Needs Where are you? What are you doing to achieve the needs associated with this level? Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Group Activity • 1. I do not feel ashamed of any of my emotions. • 2. I do not feel I must do what others expect of me. • 3. I believe that people are essentially good and can be trusted. • 4. I feel free to be angry at those I love. • 5. It is not necessary that others approve of what I do.
Group Activity • 6. I accept my own weaknesses. • 7. I can like people without having to approve of them. • 8. I do not fear failure • 9. I do not avoid attempts to analyze and simplify complex domains. • 10. It is better to be yourself than to be popular.
Group Activity • 11. I have a mission in life to which I feel especially dedicated. • 12. I can express my feelings even when they result in undesirable consequences. • 13. I feel responsible to help others. • 14. I am not bothered by fears of being inadequate. • 15. I am loved because I give love
Scores • Men • M = 45.02 , SD = 4.95 • W = 46.07, SD = 4.79
Self-Actualization • “Time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time” • What you are doing when you are not attempting to satisfy another need • Your “true” nature • “to become everything one is capable of becoming”
What if. . . . • You won a large sum of money? • What would you do? • Would this make you happy?
Why to we value material goods? Stuff Most common response to “what will improve your life” More money!
Is this true? • 1950 – present • Violent crime • Family breakdown • Psychosomatic complaints • Depression • Suicides • Happiness has stayed the same (30% very happy) • Although income has doubled!