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Carl Rogers PowerPoint Presentation
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Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers

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Carl Rogers

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  1. Carl Rogers

  2. Carl Rogers “. . . the most wonderful miracle in the world took place. .”

  3. Subjective Experiences • Inner reality more important than objective reality • Inner experiences • Conscious experiences • Experiences that can be verbalized or imagined • Unconscious experiences • Experiences that cannot be verbalized or imagined

  4. Self-Actualizing Tendency • Innate motive toward fulfillment of our potentials • Evidence • Rat and human studies • Evolution • “Innate goodness”

  5. So why do people do bad things? • Infants perceive their experiences as reality

  6. Uninhibited by the evaluations of others • All behavior directed toward satisfying need for SA • Organismic Valuing Process • SA is the criterion used to make judgments of worth

  7. As we get older. . . . • Start to experience a need for positive regard • Satisfying the needs for others satisfies this need

  8. True self

  9. Social self Created through contact with others True self

  10. Social self Prevents us from getting into touch with our true self True self

  11. Social self Leads to “conditions of worth” True self

  12. So why do people do bad things? • Social self hinders movement toward SA • Not behaving like true self causes anxiety • Anxiety causes defense mechanisms

  13. So why do people do bad things? Psychotic

  14. Positive Development • Avoid conditions of worth • Unconditional positive regard • Congruence between true self and experiences

  15. Fully Functioning Person • Open to experience • Characterized by existential living • Trust their organisms • Are creative • Live rich lives

  16. Abraham Maslow

  17. Abraham Maslow “She kissed back and then life began.”

  18. Self-Actualizing Tendency • Innate motive toward fulfillment of our potentials • Environment can cause problems

  19. Needs • Can be biological or instinctive • A state of affairs which, if present, would improve the well being of the person • Example: food

  20. Needs • An unsatisfied need will dominate an individual's thoughts and behaviors • Once a need is satisfied it no longer has as much influence on a person

  21. Example Think about food, fantasizing about a big meal Thoughts and Fantasies Have not eaten Need for food Hunger Deficit Need Motive Behaviors Go to store, buy food, bring it home, cook it

  22. Group Activity Thoughts and Fantasies Deficit Need Motive Behaviors

  23. Needs • What needs are basic? • Physical • Food, water, air, etc. • Safety • freedom from threat, danger, etc.

  24. Needs • What needs are basic? • Social / Belonging • desire for affiliation, beloning, etc. • Self-Esteem • desire for self-confidence, recognition, respect, etc.

  25. Needs • What needs are basic? • Self-Actualization • “to become everything one is capable of becoming”

  26. Needs • Which needs are more salient to survival? • There is an order that these needs typically occur • Evolutionary explanation

  27. Need Hierarchy Theory Physiological Needs

  28. Need Hierarchy Theory Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  29. Need Hierarchy Theory Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  30. Need Hierarchy Theory Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  31. Need Hierarchy Theory Self-Actualization Needs Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  32. Need Hierarchy Theory • 1) Behavior is dominated by the needs that are unfulfilled • 2) Individuals will satisfy the most basic needs first and move up the hierarchy • 3) Basic needs have higher priority than higher needs

  33. Group Activity Self-Actualization Needs Where are you? What are you doing to achieve the needs associated with this level? Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  34. Group Activity • 1. I do not feel ashamed of any of my emotions. • 2. I do not feel I must do what others expect of me. • 3. I believe that people are essentially good and can be trusted. • 4. I feel free to be angry at those I love. • 5. It is not necessary that others approve of what I do.

  35. Group Activity • 6. I accept my own weaknesses. • 7. I can like people without having to approve of them. • 8. I do not fear failure • 9. I do not avoid attempts to analyze and simplify complex domains. • 10. It is better to be yourself than to be popular.

  36. Group Activity • 11. I have a mission in life to which I feel especially dedicated. • 12. I can express my feelings even when they result in undesirable consequences. • 13. I feel responsible to help others. • 14. I am not bothered by fears of being inadequate. • 15. I am loved because I give love

  37. Scores • Men • M = 45.02 , SD = 4.95 • W = 46.07, SD = 4.79

  38. Self-Actualization • “Time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time” • What you are doing when you are not attempting to satisfy another need • Your “true” nature • “to become everything one is capable of becoming”

  39. What if. . . . • You won a large sum of money? • What would you do? • Would this make you happy?

  40. Are you happy?

  41. Are you happy?

  42. Why to we value material goods? Stuff Most common response to “what will improve your life” More money!

  43. Is this true? • 1950 – present • Violent crime • Family breakdown • Psychosomatic complaints • Depression • Suicides • Happiness has stayed the same (30% very happy) • Although income has doubled!