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Towards a comprehensive HPAI control program. A multi-intervention pilot trial in Cipunagara, Subang Bogor, 2 November 2011. Introduction. HPAI control. An effective program to control HPAI in Indonesia should have multiple components Surveillance / Outbreak investigations Vaccination

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towards a comprehensive hpai control program

Towards a comprehensive HPAI control program

A multi-intervention pilot trial in Cipunagara, Subang

Bogor, 2 November 2011

hpai control
HPAI control

An effective program to control HPAI in Indonesia should have multiple components

Surveillance / Outbreak investigations



Culling / Movement restrictions

It should target all poultry sectors (I – IV)

rationale for multi intervention approach
Rationale for multi-intervention approach

HPAI control measures in Indonesia are often used in isolation

PDSR in sector IV

Vaccination in sector IV

Vaccination in commercial sectors

Certification of sector I farms/Compartmentalization & zoning

HPAI virus amplification and transmission occurs in all sectors and is dependent on many risk factors

Therefore multiplecontrol measures need to be applied simultaneously in all sectors


To implement a multiple intervention strategy for the control of HPAI in a small, well-defined area

To limit the circulation of HPAI and to reduce the chance of new introductions of HPAI

To study the feasability and sustainability of specific intervention strategies

To encourage participation of all relevant stakeholders

To liase with other donors that may assist in the implementation of specific modules

selection of study area cipunagara subang
Selection of study areaCipunagara, Subang

Based upon profiling results of Purwakarta and Subang districts

Large poultry industry with many breeder and broiler farms

Important supplier of poultry to Jabodetabek

Known history of HPAI outbreaks

Good collaboration with local veterinary services

Close to Provincial Laboratory


8 Breeder farms

    • 6 PS
    • 2 GPS
  • 25 broiler farms
  • 7 Slaughterhouses /


  • 1 hatchery
  • ± 70 duck flocks
proposed activities in cipunagara
Proposed activities in Cipunagara

Phase I – description of the actual situation

Surveillance (Sector I – IV)

Biosecurity surveys (Sector I – IV)

Poultry health surveys (Sector III – IV)

Contact structure survey (Sector I – III)

Phase II - analysis of the data

Phase III – design and implementation of intervention strategies, continued surveillance

realized activities
Realized activities


AI surveillance: sector I – III, nomadic ducks, poultry collecting facilities

Biosecurity: sector III & IV

Poultry health: sector III & IV

Contact structure: sector III

Only few interventions implemented

Sector III: Biosecurity & poultry management improvement through biosecurity advisors

Sector IV: Biosecurity improvement through village meetings, posters & booklets


January 12th, 2011.

Positive farm

May 18th, 2010.

Positive farm

4.5 KM

5.7 KM

May 22nd, 2010.

Positive farm

surveillance results ps gps seroprevalence
Surveillance resultsPS/GPS seroprevalence

Note: All collected tracheal swab samples were PCR negative

ai surveillance conclusions 1
AI surveillanceConclusions (1)

No evidence that ducks play an important role in HPAI transmission

No HPAI H5 virus shedding detected

Positive serology?

Not determined whether this is HPAI (H5N1)

Possibility of cross-reactions in HI test have not been excluded

Evidence for other Influenza A viruses

Need further characterization

Analysis shows the presence of H3N4 and low pathogenic H5 virus

ai surveillance conclusions 2
AI surveillanceConclusions (2)

Three outbreaks on broiler farms show that the HPAI virus is present and circulating in sector 3 in Cipunagara

No evidence for the presence of HPAI in collector- or slaughterhouses

In contrast to the findings of PCF surveillance in DKI Jakarta (Civas, 2007-2010)

Limited interaction with sector I

Sampling was not under our control and non-random

Validity of results is therefore limited

biosecurity on sector 3 farms activities
Biosecurity on sector 3 farmsActivities

Baseline survey on biosecurity and production

25 farms were assessed for the level of biosecurity present on the farm

Production parameters (mortality, slaughter weight, FCR) were collected

Biosecurity advisors

Teams of trained DINAS staff visited farms weekly

Advised farmers on biosecurity, poultry health & management

Supervised syndromic surveillance

Changes in biosecurity uptake and production parameters were monitored

biosecurity on sector 3 farms c onclusions
Biosecurity on sector 3 farmsConclusions

Biosecurity advisors appeared to have positive effect on farm biosecurity and production

Average number of biosecurity measures adopted on the farms increased from 14/32 to 23/32

Average performance index (IP) increased from 302 to 373 (not significant)

Production parameters dependent on many factors (i.e. feed quality, DOC quality etc), therefore impossible to say if increased IP resulted from advisor program

Farmers see poor financial returns of broiler farming as the biggest obstacle for increased implementation of biosecurity measures

contact structure of broiler farms activities
Contact structure of broiler farmsActivities

Over a 53 day period all movements on and off 20 broiler farms were recorded in a logbook

Involvement of vehicles & equipment

Contact with poultry before, during or after the visit

Origin and destination of the visit

Visits were classified as having low, medium or high risk of HPAI transmission

contact structure of broiler farms main results
Contact structure of broiler farmsMain results

A total of 2966 visits were recorded on 20 farms over a 53 day period

Average of 143 visits per farm or 2.8 visits/farm/day

21% of visits were for social reasons

52% of visits involved a vehicle; 18% of visits involved equipment

76% of visits originated from the same village

55% of visits had contact with poultry on the farm

6% of visits were considered high risk for HPAI transmission, associated with movement of live poultry or poultry manure

Farms received an average of 7 visits to collect poultry

contact structure of broiler farms conclusions
Contact structure of broiler farmsConclusions

Relatively high proportion of social visits which can and should be restricted

Majority of contacts take place over relatively short distances → implications for disease spread

Although a relatively low proportion of visits are “high risk”, these are mainly associated with poultry collection

Poultry collection for slaughter takes place over many visits (average 7/farm) with increased risk for disease transmission

Farmers should be encouraged to use all-in all-out

village poultry biosecurity activities
Village poultry biosecurityActivities

Baseline survey to assess

Biosecurity measures which are present

Importance of village poultry keeping

Socializations on biosecurity through village meetings, posters and booklets

Follow-up survey to measure changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices

village poultry biosecurity conclusions
Village poultry biosecurityConclusions

Use of posters and booklets as socialization tools should be re-evaluated

Socializations by spoken word are probably more effective than using written socialization tools

Effectiveness of the socialization campaign with regard to changed practices seems to have been limited

multi intervention pilot conclusions
Multi-intervention pilotConclusions

In this study there is no evidence for ducks as a spreader of H5N1 HPAI virus

3 outbreaks in broiler farms were observed from at least two different sources

Farmers were willing to introduce low cost biosecurity measures

Village socialization appears to have limited effect

multi intervention pilot lessons learned
Multi-intervention pilotLessons learned

Multi intervention strategies can only be developed with the involvement of all stakeholders

Incentives for Sector 1 need to be developed to participate in developing intervention strategies

Clear mandates for Dinas Peternakan for disease control in commercial poultry are lacking


Farmers, village poultry keepers and village cadres in Cipunagara

DINAS Peternakan of Subang

Balai Pengujian Kesehatan Hewan dan Kesmavet, Cikole

Laboratory of Virology, FKH IPB