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Introduction to Embedded Systems. Read Chapter 1 ( David E. Simon, An Embedded Software Primer ). What is an Embedded System (E.S.)?. Embed : Definition 1: to fix (something) firmly and deeply (Longman Dictionary)

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introduction to embedded systems

Introduction to Embedded Systems

Read Chapter 1

(David E. Simon, An Embedded Software Primer)

what is an embedded system e s
What is an Embedded System (E.S.)?
  • Embed:
    • Definition 1: to fix (something) firmly and deeply (Longman Dictionary)
    • Definition 2: to enclose closely in a surrounding mass (Webser Dictionary)
  • System: implicitlya controlling system.

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

logical view of an embedded system
Logical View of an Embedded System

Control System

Some Function

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

key differences with pcs
Key Differences with PCs
  • React to external events that may be particularly rapid
    • Elevator on a sky-scrapper at 7:45am or 4:55pm
    • Missile flying at low altitude over a mountainous area
  • Must handle unusual events
    • A user blocking an elevator door, power blackout, memory failure
  • Task request with deadlines

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

required features for e s
Required Features for E.S.
  • Throughput
  • Response
  • Testability
  • Low power
  • Reliability
  • Safety
  • Maintainability
  • Security
  • Availability
  • Cost
  • Size/Weight
  • Survivability

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

eniac for smart bombs 1948

Explosive

Controlling system

170Kops

30 tons

200 KW

ENIAC for Smart Bombs (1948)
  • Keeping the scale: the Atlas rocket would be needed to deliver a firecracker!
  • Up to the 70’s, embedded systems did not make sense for general public usage

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

what made e s possible small and cheap
What Made E.S. Possible ?Small and Cheap
  • 1971: Intel 4004, first microprocessor (4bits), initially for a calculator.
  • 1981: IBM chooses Intel 8088 for the first PC.
  • Microprocessors get so cheap that microprocessor-based control systems become the rule.
  • Only limit: processing time.

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

products with embedded systems
Products with Embedded Systems ?
  • Of 4 billions microprocessors/microcontrollers sold per year, 95% are for embedded products:
    • VCRs, DVD players
    • Cell phone
    • Microwave
    • Washer
    • Camera
    • Cars (antilock brake system, air-bag, gas injection, electricity distribution..)
    • Printers, copiers
    • ………..

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

evolution of embedded systems
Evolution of Embedded Systems
  • Hardwired systems initially
  • Microprocessor-based
  • Microcontroller-based
  • Specialized (application) processors

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

evolution of embedded systems 2

Address Bus

Digital outputs (parallel port)

Digital inputs (parallel input)

Serial port

Data Bus

Analog input/output

Microcontroller

Specialized Processors

Evolution of Embedded Systems (2)

mP

LED

Memory

System

I/O

Switch

Temperature

Sensor

USB

802.11

LCD

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

evolution of embedded systems 3
Evolution of Embedded Systems (3)

Popular microcontrollers

  • 8-bit : Intel 8051, Intel 80188, Motorola 6805, Motorola 68hc11, Zilog
  • 16-bit: Intel 80186, Motorola 683xx family
  • 32-bit: Intel 80386 EX, PowerPC family
  • More recent:
    • ATMEL line of products

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

evolution of embedded systems 4
Evolution of Embedded Systems (4)

Intel

PXA250

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

evolution of embedded systems 5
Evolution of Embedded Systems (5)

Intel PXA800F Cellular processor

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

i o of embedded systems
I/O of Embedded Systems
  • Application dependent: switches, sensors, hexadecimal keyboard, LCD, basic keypads, communication cards, LEDs
  • Rarely:
    • Monitor, hard-drive, secondary storage, mouse, keyboard, printer, …

Embedded Systems Development Introduction Saâd Biaz

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