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Ask yourself….. Would you ALWAYS support an ally, no matter what? Why/ Why not?. Header image courtesy of: www.usgennet.org/.../ preservation/dav1/pg185.htm. MAIN Causes of the Great War M ilitarism A lliances I mperialism N ationalism.

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slide1
Ask yourself…..
  • Would you ALWAYS support an ally, no matter what?
  • Why/ Why not?

Header image courtesy of: www.usgennet.org/.../ preservation/dav1/pg185.htm

slide2
MAIN Causes of the Great War
    • Militarism
    • Alliances
    • Imperialism
    • Nationalism

Header image courtesy of: www.usgennet.org/.../ preservation/dav1/pg185.htm

slide3

Alliances

Triple Alliance

Italy

Germany

Austria

Triple Entente

Britain

France

Russia

VS.

slide4
How did these alliances start?
  • 1871 – Germany is a ‘satisfied power’
    • Aimed now at keeping peace
    • France is biggest threat to peace
    • Try to isolate France by taking away allies
  • 1879 – Germany forms Dual Alliance
    • Germany
    • Austria-Hungary
    • 3 years later, Italy joins forming the Triple Alliance
  • 1881 – Germany signs treaty with Russia
    • taking another ally away from France.

http://www.worldwar1.com/tlalli.htm#dual – For a complete timeline of all alliances

kaiser wilhelm ii
Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • German Ruler
  • “I and the army were born for one another”
slide6
1890 – new German leader allows treaty with Russia to lapse
  • Russia retorts by forming an alliance with France
    • just what Germany didn’t want
    • Germany would be forced to fight from two sides
  • Germany starts building ships comparable to British ships
slide7
Britain reacts by forming an alliance with France
  • 1907 – Britain then makes another treaty with Russia and France, forming the Triple Entente
  • Britain was not bound to fight with France and Russia, but rather promised not to fight against them.
slide9
1908 – Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Serbia who had hoped to rule these provinces became upset.
  • Tension between Serbia and Austria grew…
    • Serbia continually vowed to take the land back
    • Austria continually vowed to crush any Serbian effort of the land…
  • Eventually the heir to the Austrian throne was killed by a Serbian nationalist…
slide10
This was the “trigger” that started it all…
  • June 1914
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Heir to the Austrio-Hungary throne and his wife shot dead while visiting the capital of Serbia.
    • Assassins were Serbian, so Austria used the assassinations as an excuse to punish Serbia.
    • Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum, in which Austria only honored a few demands
    • Austria was upset with this and declared war on Serbia.
    • That same day Russian troops were ordered towards the Austrian border….

War was now inevitable.

slide11

Italy

Britain

France

Russia

Italy

Japan

Allied Powers

Central Powers

Italy

Germany

Austria

Bulgaria

Ottoman Empire

(Turkey)

VS.

Neutral Countries: Netherlands, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland

slide12
Journal
  • How has technology effected warfare?
  • Can you name anything we use today on a regular basis that was originally designed for war?
slide13
MAIN Causes of the Great War (Review)
    • Militarism
    • Alliances
    • Imperialism
    • Nationalism
  • What was the one thing that “triggered” it all….

Header image courtesy of: www.usgennet.org/.../ preservation/dav1/pg185.htm

slide14
This picture epitomizes 3 of the major characteristics of war during this time.

What do you think they are?

Machine Guns

Gas Masks

Trenches

Images Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/) and www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ FWWnieuport.htm and www.avault.com/featured/hidden/uboat.asp and www.msu.edu/user/ storto/afvwwi.htm

slide15
Technology of killingThere were new weapons not being used efficiently because they weren’t completely understood

Airplanes - of little importance in battle

  • Fun Facts about planes in the war…

Machine guns - very effective

  • Mow troops down, considered a ‘weapon of mass destruction’

Mustard Gas

  • Quickly became ineffective because of gas masks
  • Wind could blow gas back on aggressor
planes
Planes
  • The early years of war saw canvas-and-wood aircraft used primarily to function as mobile observation vehicles.

This was an improvement over the vulnerable Zeppelin and the immobile observation balloon.

  • Enemy pilots at first exchanged waves and later progressed to throwing bricks and other objects
    • (grenades and sometimes rope, which they hoped would tangle their enemy's propeller), which eventually progressed to guns.
  • Once the guns were mounted to their planes, the era of air combat began.

Image - www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ FWWnieuport.htm

chemical warfare
Chemical Warfare
  • Chemical warfare was a major distinguishing factor of the war.
  • Only a small portion of casualties were caused by gas
    • Caused blindness and death by choking
    • achieved harassment and psychological effects.
  • Effective countermeasures to gas were found in gas masks
    • Its effectiveness was diminished.
    • Wind could blow gases back at aggressor
machine guns
Machine Guns
  • combination of machine guns and barbed wire responsible for greatest # of deaths
  • Guns now lighter and more mobile
    • Maxim gun from earlier wars had wheels
  • BAR (Browning Automatic Rifle)
    • Gas operated
    • 16 to 19 lbs.
    • Semi or fully automatic
tanks
Tanks
  • Armored combat vehicle used mostly for crossing rough terrain and over barbed wire.
  • Introduced by the British in 1916
  • Armored cars used before tanks

The name tank came when the British

shipped them in crates marked "tanks“

trying to cover up what they really were

Image - www.msu.edu/user/ storto/afvwwi.htm

submarines u boats
Submarines / U-Boats
  • German (unterseeboot)
  • Primary targets were merchant convoys bringing supplies from the United States and Canada to Europe
    • Lusitania

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – means you don’t have to give warning before destroying

Image -- http://www.gwpda.org/naval/ub1-type.gif

slide21

Trenches –

  • Trench warfare arose when there was a revolution in firepower without similar advances in mobility and communications

Image Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/)

trenches
Trenches…

Images Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/)

communication
Communication
  • Communication: In 1914 both radios and telephones were the main ways of communication. These were very vital for the troops in trenches. However, that did not mean that messengers, dogs and pigeons were out of business.
tomorrow
Tomorrow…
  • Early highlights of the war
  • United States’ involvement
  • Recruiting
  • Propaganda

Image courtesy of Bishop Museum archive photos of World War I

slide26

Triple Alliance

Italy

Germany

Austria

Triple Entente

Britain

France

Russia

Central Powers

Italy

Germany

Austria

Bulgaria

Ottoman Empire

Italy

Germany

Austria

Allied Powers

Britain

France

Russia

Italy

Japan

VS.

Neutral Countries: Netherlands, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland

the u s gets involved
The U.S. Gets Involved

The Sinking of the Lusitania

Image courtesy of moana.patentes.com/ gl/biografias/galeria-5.htm

slide28
Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States.
    • Wanted to remain neutral
    • But was secretly looking for an excuse to join war…
    • he found one…

Image Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/)

slide29
America Joins the Fight

• Germany seeks to control Atlantic Ocean to stop supplies to Britain

• Uses unrestricted submarine warfare

- ships near Britain sunk without warning

  • War Goes Global – see page 852
was the sinking of the lusitania justified
Was the sinking of the Lusitania justified?
  • U.S. claimed the Lusitania carried an innocent cargo
  • Lusitania was in fact heavily armed;*
    • 1,248 cases shells
    • 4,927 boxes of cartridges (1,000 round/box)
    • 2,000 cases of small-arms ammunition

*Information from Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States

bibliography
Bibliography
  • http://www.garrettcollege.edu/faculty/bluers -
  • Temple History Department (http://www.temple.edu/history/01wandsout.html)
  • A People’s History of the United States – Howard Zinn, author
  • McDougal Littell – World History, Patterns of Interaction, text book
  • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
  • http://www.revision-notes.co.uk/revision/927.html
  • http://www.wikipedia.org/