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The Nervous System. Diversity of Nervous Systems. Basic Tasks of the Nervous System. The Nervous System. Communication and coordination Adapt and respond to changes from both inside and outside the body Site of reasoning- your brain Two main divisions

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the nervous system1
The Nervous System
  • Communication and coordination
    • Adapt and respond to changes from both inside and outside the body
  • Site of reasoning- your brain
  • Two main divisions
    • Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system- the nerves
the neuron
The Neuron
  • Neuron-basic structural unit of the nervous system
    • Dendrites- carry impulses towards the cell
    • Axon-carry impulses away from the cell
    • Myelin sheath- protects the neuron
anatomy of a neuron
Anatomy of a Neuron


Cell body





Myelin sheath


the synapse
The Synapse

Direction of nerve impulse

Axon terminal of

sending neuron

Sacs containing





Dendrite of

receiving neuron


central nervous system
Central Nervous System
  • Brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Somatic system
    • transmits sensory messages to the central nervous system
  • Autonomic
    • regulates the body’s vital functions such as heartbeat and breathing
spinal cord
Spinal Cord
  • begins at foramen magnum and ends at second lumbar vertebrae
  • contains both afferent (to the brain) and efferent (motor neurons- away from the brain)
anatomy of the brain
Anatomy of the Brain
  • Cerebrum
    • largest part of brain
    • responsible for reasoning, thought, memory, speech, sensation, etc.
    • divided into two halves.
    • further divided into lobes
      • occipital, parietal, temporal and frontal
parts of the human brain
Parts of the Human Brain

Sensory Area

Motor Area



Frontal lobe



Temporal lobe

major structures and functions of the brain
Major Structures and Functions of the Brain
  • Hindbrain
    • lower part of the brain involved in many vital functions such as heart rate, respiration and balance
  • Midbrain
    • includes areas that are involved in vision and hearing
  • Forebrain
    • front area of the brain involved in complex functions such as thought and emotion
anatomy of the brain1
Anatomy of the Brain
  • Cerebellum
    • responsible for muscle coordination
  • Brain stem
    • most basic functions
      • respiration, swallowing, blood pressure
    • lower part (medulla oblongata) is continuous with spinal cord
disorders of the nervous system
Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Meningitis
    • inflammation of the linings of the brain and spinal cord
  • Encephalitis
    • inflammation of the brain
  • Epilepsy
    • seizure disorder; excessive discharge from neurons; 1 in 200 suffer; grand mal or petit mal seizures
  • Cerebral palsy
    • disturbance in voluntary muscular action
  • Parkinson’s
    • decreased neurotransmitter
  • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Breakdown of myelin sheath; autoimmune
now it s your turn
Now, it’s your turn
  • Part I
    • In groups of 5, trace the outline of one member on a piece of butcher paper.
      • Use the outline to create a picture of the central nervous system.
      • Make sure your group labels the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
      • Label at least 6 areas where the peripheral nervous system would activate.
  • Part II
    • Pick up a brain outline sheet.
      • Identify parts of the human brain as well as sensory and motor areas of the brain.