The Nervous System By Jordan Ray, Jake Saxon, and Evan Sutton
Nervous System • The nervous system is divided into two main systems. • The Central Nervous System • The Peripheral Nervous System • The Central is made up of the brain and spinal cord. • Its function is to get the information from the body and send out instructions. • The Peripheral is made up of all the nerves. • Its main function is to send out all the messages from the brain to the body.
Parts of the Nervous System • Brain • Brain Stem • Ear • Eye • Nerves • Olfactory Cells • Spinal Cord • Taste Buds
The Brain • The is the nerve center of the body and contains centers associated with sensory functions. • It issues motor commands to skeletal muscles. • Carries on higher mental functions such as memory and reasoning. • Coordinates muscle movements. • Also provides characteristics such as personality.
Brain Stem • Connects the brain to the spinal cord. • Consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. • These three parts have many tracts of nerve fibers and masses of gray matter called nuclei.
Ears • Has two separate parts. • The first is the outer ear. • The second is the inner. • In addition to making hearing possible, the ear gives the person their sense of equilibrium.
Eyes • Many organs assist in the visual receptors in the eyes. • The main three are: • Eyelids • Lacrimal Apparatus • A set of extrensic muscles to help move them.
Nerves • Bundles of nerve fibers, or axons. • Nerves are broken down into 3 categories: • Nerves that only conduct impulses to the brain or spinal cord are sensory nerves. • Nerves that only have conduct motor control are motor nerves. • Nerves that include both sensory and motor nerves are called mixed nerves.
Olfactory Cells • These are cells that help assist in a person sense of smell. • These appear as yellowish brown masses surrounded by pinkish mucous membranes in the upper nose.
Spinal Cord • Slender column of nervous tissue that connects to the brain and extends downward. • The spinal cord has two main functions. • The first is that it is a center for spinal reflexes. • The second is that it is a receptor for nerve impulses to and from the brain.
Taste Buds • Taste buds are found on the tongue with tiny elevations called papillae. • They are also found scattered throughout the mouth in many more places. • Every taste bud also has taste receptors, which are covered in taste cells. • There are 5 primary taste sensations: • Sweet • Salty • Sour • Bitter • Unami
How the organs work together • The brain is the boss of the nervous system. It tells everything else in the system what to do. • The spinal cord also contributes to this. • The taste buds, olfactory cells, ears, and eyes are all receptors. The brain receives impulses from these body parts and sends out information to the rest of the body through the spinal cord.
The Nervous System and how the Other Systems work together. • Integumentary • Sensory receptors on the skin provide the nervous system with information about the outside world. • Lymphatic • Stress impairs the immune systems response. • Skeletal • Bones protect the spinal cord and brain. • Digestive • Nervous system can influence the digestive function.
Systems working together continued… • Muscular • Nerve impulses control movement and carry information about the position of body parts. • Respiratory • Alters respiratory activity to control oxygen levels and blood pH levels. • Endocrine • Hypothalamus controls secretion of hormones.
Systems working together continued… • Urinary • Nerve impulses affect urine production and elimination. • Cardiovascular • Nerve impulses control blood flow and blood pressure. • Reproductive • Plays a role in egg and sperm formation, sexual pleasure, childbirth, and nursing.
Cause of Death • We think that the victims cause of death was due to the fact that she hit her head and immediately died of brain damage.
Bibliography Page • Shier DA, Butler JA, Lewis RI. 2007. Hole’s human anatomy and physiology, eleventh edition. Ohio: R.R. Donnelley Willard; p. 386-483.