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### Chemistry 14.1

14.1 Properties of Gasescompressibility; factors that affect gas pressure

14.2 The Gas LawsBoyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac, combined

14.3 Ideal Gasesideal gas law; ideal gas constant; real gases

14.4 Gases: Mixtures and Movements (SKIP)Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Graham’s law of effusion

14.1 Properties of Gases

- In organized soccer, a ball that is properly inflated will rebound faster and travel farther than a ball that is under-inflated. If the pressure is too high, the ball may burst when it is kicked. You will study variables that affect the pressure of a gas.

Compressibility

- Compressibility is a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure. When a person collides with an inflated airbag, the compression of the gas absorbs the energy of the impact.

Compressibility

- Gases are easily compressed because of the space between the particles in a gas.
- The distance between particles in a gas is much greater than the distance between particles in a liquid or solid.
- Under pressure, the particles in a gas are forced closer together.

- At room temperature, the distance between particles in an enclosed gas is about 10 times the diameter of a particle.

Factors Affecting Gas Pressure

The amount of gas, volume, and temperature are factors that affect gas pressure.

- Four variables are generally used to describe a gas. The variables and their common units are
- pressure (P) in kilopascals
- volume (V) in liters
- temperature (T) in kelvins
- the number of moles (n).

Factors Affecting Gas Pressure

Amount of Gas

- You can use kinetic theory to predict and explain how gases will respond to a change of conditions. If you inflate an air raft, for example, the pressure inside the raft will increase.

- Collisions of particles with the inside walls of the raft result in the pressure that is exerted by the enclosed gas. Increasing the number of particles increases the number of collisions, which is why the gas pressure increases.

Factors Affecting Gas Pressure

If the gas pressure increases until it exceeds the strength of an enclosed, rigid container, the container will burst.

Factors Affecting Gas Pressure

Volume

- You can raise the pressure exerted by a contained gas by reducing its volume. The more a gas is compressed, the greater is the pressure that the gas exerts inside the container.

- When the volume of the container is halved, the pressure the gas exerts is doubled.

Factors Affecting Gas Pressure

Temperature

- An increase in the temperature of an enclosed gas causes an increase in its pressure.
- As a gas is heated, the average kinetic energy of the particles in the gas increases. Faster-moving particles strike the walls of their container with more energy.

- When the Kelvin temperature of the enclosed gas doubles, the pressure of the enclosed gas doubles.

14.1 Section Quiz

1. Compared to liquids and solids, gases are easily compressed because the particles in a gas

- attract each other.
- are spaced relatively far apart.
- are very small.
- repel each other.

14.1 Section Quiz

2. Gas pressure is affected by

- temperature, volume, and the amount of the gas.
- temperature, volume, and the molar mass of the gas.
- phase diagram, volume, and the size of the container.
- temperature, phase diagram, and the mass of the gas container.

14.1 Section Quiz

3. For gases, the SI units for volume (V), pressure (P), and temperature (T) are, respectively,

- liters, kilopascals, and °C.
- liters, kilopascals, and kelvins.
- cm3, kilopascals, and kelvins.
- liters, atmospheres, and °C.

14.2 The Gas Laws

- This hot air balloon was designed to carry a passenger around the world. You will study some laws that will allow you to predict gas behavior under specific conditions, such as in a hot air balloon.

Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume

- If the temperature is constant, as the pressure of a gas increases, the volume decreases.
- Boyle’s law states that for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.

Charles’s Law: Temp. and Volume

- As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant.
- Charles’s law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant.

Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and Temperature

- As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constant.
- Gay-Lussac’s law states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant.

Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and Temperature

When a gas is heated at constant volume, the pressure increases.

A pressure cooker demonstrates Gay-Lussac’s Law.

The Combined Gas Law

- The combined gas law describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas.
- The combined gas law allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant.

The Combined Gas Law

Weather balloons carry data-gathering instruments high into Earth’s atmosphere. At an altitude of about 27,000 meters, the balloon bursts.

14.2 Summary

Gases: relationship between pressure, volume, temperature, and number of molesBoyle’s Law: pressure is inversely proportional to volume as pressure goes up; volume goes downCharles’ Law: volume is directly proportional to temperature as volume goes up; temperature goes upGay-Lussac’s Law: pressure is directly proportional to temperatureCombined Gas Law:

14.3 Summary (one additional gas law)

- Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRTR = 8.31 (L•kPa)/(K•mol) n = number of molesAn ideal gas is one that follows the gas laws at all conditions of pressure and temperature. Real gases differ most from an ideal gas at low temperatures and high pressures.
- Use the Ideal Gas Law when you care about the amount of gas (moles).

14.2 Section Quiz.

1. If the volume of a gas in a container were reduced to one fifth the original volume at constant temperature, the pressure of the gas in the new volume would be

- one and one fifth times the original pressure.
- one fifth of the original pressure.
- four fifths of the original pressure.
- five times the original pressure.

14.2 Section Quiz.

2. A balloon appears slightly smaller when it is moved from the mountains to the seashore at constant temperature. The best gas law to explain this observation would be

- Gay-Lussacs's Law.
- Graham's Law.
- Boyle's Law.
- Charles's Law.

14.2 Section Quiz

3. At 46°C and 89 kPa pressure, a gas occupies a volume of 0.600 L. How many liters will it occupy at 0°C and 20.8 kPa?

- 0.600 L
- 2.58 L
- 0.140 L
- 2.20 L

14.3 Ideal Gases

Solid carbon dioxide, or dry ice, doesn’t melt. It sublimes. Dry ice can exist because gases don’t obey the assumptions of kinetic theory under all conditions. You will learn how real gases differ from the ideal gases on which the gas laws are based.

Ideal Gas Law

The gas law that includes all four variables—P, V, T, and n—is called the ideal gas law.

The ideal gas constant (R) has the value 8.31 (L·kPa)/(K·mol).—there are other values if you use different units, but it’s easier if you remember on constant and use the same units!

Ideal Gases and Real Gases

There are attractions between the particles in an ideal gas. Because of these attractions, a gas can condense,or even solidify, when it is compressed or cooled.

Real gases differ most from an ideal gas at low temperatures and high pressures

Calculations Summary

- When using gas laws, convert all temperatures to Kelvin. Celsius causes problems because of negative values.
- Pressure and volume can be in other units except when using the Ideal Gas Law.
- Because of the gas constant (R) that has the units (L•kPa)/(K•mol), you must use Liters, kPa, and Kelvin.

14.3 Section Quiz

1. Find the volume of a gas in liters if 2.95 mol has a pressure of 77.0 kPa at a temperature of 52°C.

- 22.4 L
- 16.6 L
- 103 L
- 50.2 L

14.3 Section Quiz.

2. An aerosol spray can with a volume of 325 mL contains 3.00 g of propane (C3H8) as a propellant. What is the pressure in atm of the gas in the can at 28°C?

- 5.17 atm
- 228 atm
- 4.69 atm
- 5.17 x 10-3 atm

14.3 Section Quiz.

3. An ideal gas differs from a real gas in that the molecules of an ideal gas

- have no attraction for one another.
- have a significant volume.
- have a molar mass of zero.
- have no kinetic energy.

Gases: Mixtures and Movements

- A list of gear for an expedition to Mount Everest includes climbing equipment, ski goggles, a down parka with a hood, and most importantly compressed-gas cylinders of oxygen. You will find out why a supply of oxygen is essential at higher altitudes.

Dalton’s Law

- Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that, at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.

Graham’s Law

- Thomas Graham’s Contribution
- Graham’slaw of effusion states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas’s molar mass. This law can also be applied to the diffusion of gases.

Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout.

- During effusion, a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container.
- Gases of lower molar mass diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass.

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