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Purpose Approach Example - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Purpose Approach Example. Outline. Understand and use the total economic value forests generate: Land use planning: forestry vs other Forest management: Timber Other non-timber products Recreation Biodiversity / wildlife Capturing total economic value:

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Understand and use the total economic value forests generate:

    • Land use planning: forestry vs other
    • Forest management:
      • Timber
      • Other non-timber products
      • Recreation
      • Biodiversity / wildlife
    • Capturing total economic value:
      • Timber pricing (e.g. sustainability premium)
      • Payments for Ecosystem Services (incbiocarbon)
      • Biodiversity offsetting
      • Reforestation credits



Total Economic Value

    • Direct use, indirect use, non-use
    • Market and non-market data
    • Visitors, local residents, wider population
  • Ecosystem Services
    • General relationships between resource and services, and services
    • Location specific relationships
  • Cost Benefit Analysis
    • Appropriate effort
    • Sensitivity analysis
    • Transparency and audit trail



Qualitative assessment

Which type of forest likely to provide which service, where, how much

Ecosystem Services Approach

Quantitative assessment

Measuring service levels

and impacts of management options

Input to



Value changes in service levels

Apply valuation methods

(market prices, revealed preference, stated preference, value transfer)


Typology of forests

Management options

Cost of forest management


Scenario analysis




Forestry Commission England study


Vegetation type: broadleaf / conifer / open habitat / other

  • Upland / lowland
  • Slope and aspect
  • Ancient / secondary (ASNW, PAWS, OSNW)
  • Location and size
  • Setting (urban / peri-urban / rural)
  • Availability of alternatives
  • Age / class
  • Species
  • BAP priority habitats
  • Alternative habitats, soil type
  • Management practices
  • Ownership
  • Public access
  • Facilities and accommodation
  • Certification
  • Recreation activities
  • Watershed regulation, wind regulation, carbon sequestration

Typology of forests


Forest / woodland ecology:

    • Broadleaf / mixed, coniferous, open habitat
  • Proximity to users:
    • Urban community
    • Peri-urban
    • Rural
  • Management
    • Low intensity management
    • Managed primarily for timber
    • Managed for multiple objectives
  • Access
    • No public access
    • Access encouraged with low level of facilities
    • Access encouraged with high level of facilities
  • Biodiversity
    • BAP priority / not BAP priority

Typology of forests


Timber / fuelwood:

    • Market price
  • Greenhouse gas regulation
    • UK official value for traded / non-traded carbon
  • Recreation
    • Value transfer from travel cost and stated preference studies
  • Aesthetic values
    • Value transfer from hedonic pricing and stated preference studies
  • Biodiversity
    • Value transfer (weak link between typology and values)
  • Watershed services excluded



Land management

    • Forestry operations
  • Access provision
    • Access and facilities for recreation
  • Conservation and heritage
    • Biodiversity protection and other natural or human heritage conservation
  • Community engagement
    • Consultation and community involvement in woodland management



Present (status quo)

    • Maintain public forest estate as is
  • The recent past
    • Prior to emphasis on community woodlands an recreation
  • Future as planned
    • Based on current Forest Design Plans
  • People focused
    • Enhanced emphasis on providing recreation and other services
  • Habitat Action Plan focused
    • Enhanced emphasis on conversion to open habitats
  • Plantation on Ancient Woodland Sites
  • Timber focused



Simplifying complexity: typology…site specific analysis will reduce this

Errors in estimating physical service provision and change: missing data, data transfer

Recreation values: uncertainty about visit numbers, value per visit, substitution effects, errors in converting from centres to per hectare

Exclude some ecosystem services, not full coverage of others

Approximate estimates, NOT applicable elsewhere



The overall approach works to present all services but missing scientific and economic evidence

Project-specific typology needs to be created

Move from per hectare averages to spatial distribution (e.g. use of GIS)

Appropriate level of effort for CBA?

For new forest projects, include the current baseline landuse to the CBA

Extend CBA to identify new market opportunities / revisions to existing policies



Ece Ozdemiroglu


Thank you!