Unit D MERCHANDISE INFORMATION. 4.01 Identify basic textile fibers, fabrics, and their characteristics. Textile Industry Terms. Fiber : The smallest unit in a textile fabric. Yarn : A group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand.
4.01 Identify basic textile fibers, fabrics, and their characteristics.
Fibers from plants or animal sources.
Fibers that are man-made (synthetic) and are created by combining various substances with chemicals.
Blend: A combination of two or more fibers that maximizes the best features of each fiber.
The soft, white, downy fiber (boll) attached to the seed of a cotton plant.
Strong and durable
Cool to wear
Shrinks in hot water
The fiber that forms the coat (fleece) of sheep.
Natural insulator; warmest of all natural fibers
Soft and resilient
Naturally flame retardant
Absorbs moisture more slowly than cotton
Shrinks if machine washed or dried unless chemically treated
Affected by moths
Grown and harvested primarily in Eastern Europe
Linen is made by weaving or knitting flax fiber into fabric.
The fine, lustrous fiber that comes from a cocoon spun by a silkworm.
Tanning converts hides into finished usable leather.
Suede: Leather with a napped surface on the flesh side.
The soft, hairy coat of an animal.
Weaving: The process of interlacing one or more sets of yarns at right angles on a loom.
Weft knits: Knits made with only one yarn that runs crosswise forming a horizontal row of interlocking loops.
Cut edges will curl.
Weft knits run if snagged.
Examples: jersey, ribbed knits, sweater knits
Constructing fabric by looping yarns together.
Warp knits: Knits made with several yarns creating loops that interlock in the lengthwise direction.
Do not ravel
Have selvage edges
Examples: tricot, raschel knits
Gauge: The number of stitches, or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric.
Applying colors, designs or surface treatments that change the look, feel, or performance of fabrics.
Affect size and appearance
Examples: glazing, embossing, brushing/napping/cutting (corduroy)
Chemical: Finishes that become part of the fabric through chemical reactions with the fibers.
Examples: flame retardant, stain resistant (Scotchgard®), waterproof, permanent press, preshrunk (Sanforized®)Finish categories
- wicking (a fiber’s ability to draw moisture away from the body so it can evaporate)
Dr. Niall Finn, CSIRO Textile and Fiber TechnologySmart fibers
“High-performance mirrors have been formed into hair-thin fibers and woven into fabrics and paper.”
Massachusetts Institute of Technology