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Groups. Definition Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal and informal groups. (1). Formal groups

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  • Definition

Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives.

formal and informal groups
Formal and informal groups

(1). Formal groups

……..are those defined by organizational structure with designated work assignments and establishing tasks.

  • For example the six members making up an airline flight crew are a formal group.
formal and informal groups1
Formal and informal groups

(2). Informal groups

…….are those neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact.

For example

Three employees from different

departments who regularly eat

their lunch together is an

informal group.

classifying groups
Classifying Groups

Command Groups

(1).Formal group

Task Groups

Interest Groups

(2).Informal group

Friendship Groups

four types of groups
Four Types of Groups
  • Command group.

– determined by the organization chart. It is composed of individuals who directly report to a given manager. An elementary school principal and her 18 teachers form a command group. or the area sales manager along with his sales force.

four types of groups1
Four Types of Groups
  • Task group

– it is also organizationally determined represent those working together to complete a job task, however a task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. For instance the hiring of new employees can be a task which can involve GM, HR manager and a particular functional manager.

four types of groups2
Four Types of Groups
  • Interest group

are such groups that affiliate to attain a specific objective of shared interest. for example employees who come together to have their vacations schedules altered, to support a colleague who has been fired or to seek improvement in working conditions is an interest group.

four types of groups3
Four Types of Groups
  • Friendship group

– members have one or more common characteristics. for example similar age or holding similar political views
















Stages of Group Development

Stage I


Stage II


Stage III


Stage IV


Stage V


stages of group development
Stages of Group Development

Groups generally pass through this sequence, the five stage model of group. Forming, storming, Norming performing and adjourning.

The first stage forming

is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group purpose, structure and leadership. members are uncertain about what type of behavior is acceptable. This stage is complete when members have begun to think themselves as part of a group.

stages of group development1
Stages of Group Development

2.The storming stage

  • is one of the intra group conflict. members accept the existence of the group, but there is a resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on individuals.
  • Furthermore there is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
stages of group development2
Stages of Group Development

3.The Norming stage

The Norming stage completes

when close relationships have been developed and the group demonstrates cooperation.

  • Cooperation further develops common set of expectations from the group members which defines their behavior.
stages of group development3
Stages of Group Development
  • The fourth stage is performing.

The group structure becomes fully functional and group energy moves from getting to know and understand each other to performing a task at hand.

  • For permanent work groups performing is the last stage of their development, however for temporary committees, task forces or other similar groups that have a limited task to perform, there is an

adjourning stage.

stages of group development4
Stages of Group Development

5. Adjourning stage.

In this stage the group prepares for its disbandment, where high task performance is no longer the group’s priority, instead attention is directed toward wrapping up activities.









According to Shakespeare all the world is a stage and all the men and women are players. similarly all the group members are actors.

Role is defined as……

to engage in a set of

expected behavior that

are related to occupying

a given position in a social


role identity
Role identity
  • Role Identity – the ability to recognize attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.
  • When workers are promoted

to supervisory positions vital

changes are observed in their

behavior with other workers.

role perception and role expectation
Role perception and role expectation
  • Role Perception –

our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation is called role perception.

role perception and role expectation1
Role perception and role expectation
  • Role Expectations –

how others believe

you should act in a

given situation is

called role expectation.

role conflict
Role conflict
  • Role conflict is that situation when there is much difference in role perception and role expectation.
  • That is, people expect an individual to behave in one way and the individual perceives to behave in another way.
  • The degree to which

members of the group

are attracted to each

other and motivated to

stay in the group

Related to the group’s



Group Decision Making



  • More Diversity of Views
  • Increased information
  • Higher-quality decisions
  • Improved Commitment
  • Increased acceptance
  • Dominant Individuals
  • Unclear Responsibility
  • Time and money costs
  • Conformity pressures
symptoms of groupthink
Symptoms of Groupthink

Group members when making any decision, ask for the agreement of all group members.

  • Some individuals in the group, who have a difference of opinion, remain silent. They keep quiet in order to avoid any conflict among group members.
  • Their silence is considered as yes, although their silence is meant as NO.
  • In groupthink sometimes minority

becomes victim of majority in

decision making.

group shift
Group shift

When a manager makes any decision individually, then he is very careful and avoids all risks, because in case of failure he will be solely responsible for his decision.

  • But when the same manager is the member of some group, then he is making more risky decisions.
  • The reason is that in case of failure no single individual could be made responsible in group decision making.
  • Thus in group decision making the position of a manager shifts from normal decisions to more risky decisions, called group shift