Groups. Definition Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal and informal groups. (1). Formal groups
Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives.
(1). Formal groups
……..are those defined by organizational structure with designated work assignments and establishing tasks.
(2). Informal groups
…….are those neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact.
Three employees from different
departments who regularly eat
their lunch together is an
– determined by the organization chart. It is composed of individuals who directly report to a given manager. An elementary school principal and her 18 teachers form a command group. or the area sales manager along with his sales force.
– it is also organizationally determined represent those working together to complete a job task, however a task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. For instance the hiring of new employees can be a task which can involve GM, HR manager and a particular functional manager.
are such groups that affiliate to attain a specific objective of shared interest. for example employees who come together to have their vacations schedules altered, to support a colleague who has been fired or to seek improvement in working conditions is an interest group.
– members have one or more common characteristics. for example similar age or holding similar political views
Groups generally pass through this sequence, the five stage model of group. Forming, storming, Norming performing and adjourning.
The first stage forming
is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group purpose, structure and leadership. members are uncertain about what type of behavior is acceptable. This stage is complete when members have begun to think themselves as part of a group.
2.The storming stage
3.The Norming stage
The Norming stage completes
when close relationships have been developed and the group demonstrates cooperation.
The group structure becomes fully functional and group energy moves from getting to know and understand each other to performing a task at hand.
5. Adjourning stage.
In this stage the group prepares for its disbandment, where high task performance is no longer the group’s priority, instead attention is directed toward wrapping up activities.
According to Shakespeare all the world is a stage and all the men and women are players. similarly all the group members are actors.
Role is defined as……
to engage in a set of
expected behavior that
are related to occupying
a given position in a social
to supervisory positions vital
changes are observed in their
behavior with other workers.
our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation is called role perception.
how others believe
you should act in a
given situation is
called role expectation.
members of the group
are attracted to each
other and motivated to
stay in the group
Related to the group’s
Group members when making any decision, ask for the agreement of all group members.
becomes victim of majority in
When a manager makes any decision individually, then he is very careful and avoids all risks, because in case of failure he will be solely responsible for his decision.