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Animal Behavior . Biology Chapter 34.

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animal behavior

Animal Behavior

Biology

Chapter 34

slide2

IQ #1Brainstorming is a technique that, when used effectively, allows you to draw out more information than you might have otherwise. To brainstorm a particular topic, write down any words that come to mind during the time allotted. Try to continue writing throughout the time given and do not stop to analyze any of the words you have written down.

1. The word you are to brainstorm is behavior. Behavior is the way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment. On a sheet of paper, make a list of as many behaviors as possible. You will have two minutes.

2. After you have finished this section, revisit your list. Write the letter “I” next to any words that describe innate, or unlearned, behaviors. Write the letter “L” next to any words that describe learned behaviors.

section outline 34 1 elements of behavior
Section outline:34–1 Elements of Behavior

A. Stimulus and Response

1. Types of Stimuli

2. How Animals Respond

B. Behavior and Evolution

C. Innate Behavior

D. Learned Behavior

1. Habituation

2. Classical Conditioning

3. Operant Conditioning

4. Insight Learning

E. Instinct and Learning Combined

behavior
Behavior
  • Behavior is the way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment.
  • Innate Behavior: Instinct or inborn
  • Learned Behavior: Acquired over time
a stimulus and response
A. Stimulus and Response

Stimulus (pleural: stimuli): Any kind of signal that carries that carries information and can be detected

1. Types of Stimuli

Animals respond to many different types of external and internal stimuli.

ex. Senses of sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, heat, echolocation, magnetic field detection, hunger, thirst, etc.

stimulus and response
Stimulus and Response

Response: A single specific reaction to a stimulus.

A behavior may consist of multiple response

2. How Animals Respond

a. When an animal responds to a stimulus, body systems-including the sense organs, nervous system, and muscles- interact to produce the resultant behavior

b. Depends on the complexity of the nervous system of the organism

b behavior and evolution
B. Behavior and Evolution

a. Behavior is essential to survival

b. Many behaviors are influenced by genes

c. Therefore they can be inherited

d. They can help an individual to survive and reproduce

e. They can be passed on to offspring and through generations of Natural selection, influence the species survivability

f. Known as an Adaptive Behavior

innate behavior
Innate Behavior

C. Innate behavior: Appear as fully functional the first time they are performed, even though the animal has no previous experience with the stimuli to which it responds.

a. Triggered by the environment (sign stimulus or a releaser)

b. Inherited neurological circuitry that directs behavior

innate behavior11
Innate Behavior

c. Kinesis & Taxis-change in activity in response to stimuli

d. Migration

e. Signals & Communication (pheromones)

f. Fixed Action patterns (FAP) observed in the Graylag goose & egg rolling & the three-spined stickle back fish

g. Other examples:

  • suckling of a newborn mammal
  • weaver bird hanging nest building
  • spider web weaving
d learned behavior
D. Learned Behavior

Learned behavior (Acquired behavior): behavior that is able to be altered as a result of experience and interaction with the environment.

a. Develops over time

b. Four major types of learning: habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and insight learning.

1 habituation
1. Habituation

a. When an animal decreases or stops a response to a repetitive stimulus.

b. Ignoring a non-threatening or unrewarding stimulus

c. Allows organisms to spend their time and energy more efficiently

d. Long-lasting when fully habituated

e. This lack of response is not a result of fatigue nor of sensory adaptation

Ex. Common shore ragworm

2 classical conditioning
2. Classical Conditioning

a. Mental connection between a stimulus and some kind of reward or punishment

b. Pavlov’s Dog experiment: changed a dogs stimulus for the innate response of salivation.

c. Salivation, food, and bell

d. Can opener w/dogs and cats

pavlov s dog experiment

Before Conditioning

When a dog sees or smells food, it produces saliva. Food is the stimulus and the dog’s response is salivation. Dogs do not usually salivate in response to nonfood stimuli.

After Conditioning

When Pavlov rang a bell inthe absence of food, the dogstill salivated. The dog was conditioned to salivate in response to a stimulus that it did not normally associate with food.

During Conditioning

By ringing a bell every time he fed the dog, Pavlov trained the dog to associate the sight and smell of food with the ringing bell.

Pavlov’s Dog Experiment
3 operant conditioning
3. Operant Conditioning

a. When an animal learns to behave a certain way due to repeated practice, in order to receive a reward or avoid punishment

b. May not involve an innate response

c. Dog training, parenting, maze experiments, etc.

d. Skinner experiment with pigeons in a box with a lever

e. Also known as Trial and Error, free to try many different behaviors.

f. Use positive and negative reinforcement

4 insight learning
4. Insight Learning
  • Reasoning: applying something already learned to a new situation, without a period of trial and error.
  • Common among humans and other primates
5 instinct and learning combined
5. Instinct and Learning Combined

a. Many behaviors are a combination of innate ability and learning

  • Bird songs
  • Imprinting (sight and smell)
    • Critical period: limited time imprinting can occur
  • Konrad Lorenz’ experiments with Geese
    • Geese imprint on first moving object they see
    • His geese imprinted on Him.
  • Human infants:

-Grasping -smiling w/parent

-cheek & feeding -Babinski reflex

imprinting
Imprinting

Normal geese imprinting

Konrad Lorenz, Goslings imprinted on "mom"

Salmon imprint on stream odor from where they hatched to return later

concept map
Concept Map

Behavioralcycles

Socialbehavior

Competitionand Aggression

Communication

Claim/protectterritory

Seasonal

Daily

Buildinghomes

Protection

Chemicalsignals

Language

Courtship

Hunting

Fightingrivals

Visualsignals

Sound

Migration

Circadianrhythms

Section 34-2

AnimalBehavior

includes patterns of

response tonatural cycles

interactions withothers through

for naturalresources

dependson sense

example

example

a behavioral cycles
A. Behavioral Cycles
  • Response to periodic changes in the environment, natural cycles
    • Warm seasons, cold seasons
    • Sunlight, darkness
  • May be daily or seasonally
seasonal and daily cycles
Seasonal and Daily Cycles

1. Seasonal

a. Dormancy: allows animal to survive periods of limited food and resources.

  • ex. Hibernation, aestivation

b. Migrations: periodic movement from one place to another

2. Daily

a. Circadian Rhythms: daily behavioral patterns.

  • Light and dark patterns ex. Sleep patterns, food eating
  • Disruptions: Jet Lag
b social behavior
B. Social Behavior

Interactions with others of the same species through

    • Courtship
    • Building homes
    • Hunting
    • Protection
    • Fighting rivals
  • Social Behaviors in animal societies that help relatives survive and reproduce improves an individuals evolutionary fitness
  • Studies done by Jane Goodall on Chimps
1 courtship
1. Courtship

a. To pass along its genes to the next generation, any animal that reproduces sexually needs to locate and mate with another member of its species at least once.

b. Courtship behavior is a method to help animals identify healthy mates and ensure reproductive success.

2 courtship stimuli
2. Courtship Stimuli

a. Sounds

b. Visual displays

c. Chemical signals

d. Elaborate Rituals

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/02/animalcourting/

3 competition and aggression
3. Competition and Aggression

a. Prevent others from using resources

b. Such as food, water, nesting sites, shelter, and potential mates

c. Territory: area that is occupied and protected by an animal or group of animals.

d. Fiercely protected from rivals

4 competition and aggression
4. Competition and Aggression

a. Competition for food and territory may be witnessed when an organism tries to claim limited resources.

b. Aggression: a threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another.

  • Pride of lions, giraffes, etc.
5 communication
5. Communication
  • Communication: the passing of information from one organism to another.
    • Visual
    • Sound
    • Touch
    • Chemical signals
a visual signals
a. Visual Signals
  • Usually used with organisms that have good eyesight
  • Display bright colors or patterns
  • Ex. Cuttlefish

Cuttlefish and Angry Cuttlefish

b chemical signals
b. Chemical Signals
  • Usually used in animals with a good sense of smell
    • Insects, fishes, mammals
  • Pheromones: chemical messengers that affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species.
  • Used to mark territory or signal readiness to mate
c sound signals
c. Sound Signals
  • Usually used with animals with strong vocal abilities
    • Crickets, toads, birds, whales
  • Many have evolved elaborate communication systems

Frog croak

crickets

Frogs at night

d language
d. Language
  • Language: combines sounds, symbols, gestures according to sets of rules about word order and meaning such as grammar and syntax.
  • Most complex means of communication
  • Only seen in humans as an innate form of communication
  • Can be learned in Dolphins, Gorillas, etc.
gorilla knows sign language
Gorilla knows sign language

http://www.koko.org/world/signlanguage.html