Animal Behavior . Biology Chapter 34.
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IQ #1Brainstorming is a technique that, when used effectively, allows you to draw out more information than you might have otherwise. To brainstorm a particular topic, write down any words that come to mind during the time allotted. Try to continue writing throughout the time given and do not stop to analyze any of the words you have written down.
1. The word you are to brainstorm is behavior. Behavior is the way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment. On a sheet of paper, make a list of as many behaviors as possible. You will have two minutes.
2. After you have finished this section, revisit your list. Write the letter “I” next to any words that describe innate, or unlearned, behaviors. Write the letter “L” next to any words that describe learned behaviors.
A. Stimulus and Response
1. Types of Stimuli
2. How Animals Respond
B. Behavior and Evolution
C. Innate Behavior
D. Learned Behavior
2. Classical Conditioning
3. Operant Conditioning
4. Insight Learning
E. Instinct and Learning Combined
Stimulus (pleural: stimuli): Any kind of signal that carries that carries information and can be detected
1. Types of Stimuli
Animals respond to many different types of external and internal stimuli.
ex. Senses of sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, heat, echolocation, magnetic field detection, hunger, thirst, etc.
Response: A single specific reaction to a stimulus.
A behavior may consist of multiple response
2. How Animals Respond
a. When an animal responds to a stimulus, body systems-including the sense organs, nervous system, and muscles- interact to produce the resultant behavior
b. Depends on the complexity of the nervous system of the organism
a. Behavior is essential to survival
b. Many behaviors are influenced by genes
c. Therefore they can be inherited
d. They can help an individual to survive and reproduce
e. They can be passed on to offspring and through generations of Natural selection, influence the species survivability
f. Known as an Adaptive Behavior
C. Innate behavior: Appear as fully functional the first time they are performed, even though the animal has no previous experience with the stimuli to which it responds.
a. Triggered by the environment (sign stimulus or a releaser)
b. Inherited neurological circuitry that directs behavior
c. Kinesis & Taxis-change in activity in response to stimuli
e. Signals & Communication (pheromones)
f. Fixed Action patterns (FAP) observed in the Graylag goose & egg rolling & the three-spined stickle back fish
g. Other examples:
Learned behavior (Acquired behavior): behavior that is able to be altered as a result of experience and interaction with the environment.
a. Develops over time
b. Four major types of learning: habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and insight learning.
a. When an animal decreases or stops a response to a repetitive stimulus.
b. Ignoring a non-threatening or unrewarding stimulus
c. Allows organisms to spend their time and energy more efficiently
d. Long-lasting when fully habituated
e. This lack of response is not a result of fatigue nor of sensory adaptation
Ex. Common shore ragworm
a. Mental connection between a stimulus and some kind of reward or punishment
b. Pavlov’s Dog experiment: changed a dogs stimulus for the innate response of salivation.
c. Salivation, food, and bell
d. Can opener w/dogs and cats
When a dog sees or smells food, it produces saliva. Food is the stimulus and the dog’s response is salivation. Dogs do not usually salivate in response to nonfood stimuli.
When Pavlov rang a bell inthe absence of food, the dogstill salivated. The dog was conditioned to salivate in response to a stimulus that it did not normally associate with food.
By ringing a bell every time he fed the dog, Pavlov trained the dog to associate the sight and smell of food with the ringing bell.Pavlov’s Dog Experiment
a. When an animal learns to behave a certain way due to repeated practice, in order to receive a reward or avoid punishment
b. May not involve an innate response
c. Dog training, parenting, maze experiments, etc.
d. Skinner experiment with pigeons in a box with a lever
e. Also known as Trial and Error, free to try many different behaviors.
f. Use positive and negative reinforcement
a. Many behaviors are a combination of innate ability and learning
-Grasping -smiling w/parent
-cheek & feeding -Babinski reflex
Normal geese imprinting
Konrad Lorenz, Goslings imprinted on "mom"
Salmon imprint on stream odor from where they hatched to return later
Chapter 34 -2
includes patterns of
response tonatural cycles
interactions withothers through
a. Dormancy: allows animal to survive periods of limited food and resources.
b. Migrations: periodic movement from one place to another
a. Circadian Rhythms: daily behavioral patterns.
Interactions with others of the same species through
a. To pass along its genes to the next generation, any animal that reproduces sexually needs to locate and mate with another member of its species at least once.
b. Courtship behavior is a method to help animals identify healthy mates and ensure reproductive success.
b. Visual displays
c. Chemical signals
d. Elaborate Rituals
a. Prevent others from using resources
b. Such as food, water, nesting sites, shelter, and potential mates
c. Territory: area that is occupied and protected by an animal or group of animals.
d. Fiercely protected from rivals
a. Competition for food and territory may be witnessed when an organism tries to claim limited resources.
b. Aggression: a threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another.
Cuttlefish and Angry Cuttlefish
Frogs at night