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Aryan Migration into India

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  1. Aryan Migration into India • 1500-1200 BCE Aryans brought the Vedic tradition with them • Patriarchal tribes • Horse-drawn chariots • A warrior class • A pantheon similar the Greek pantheon • Their conquest or climatic change caused decline of the IVC

  2. The Vedic Tradition • Aryans brought their religion and caste system: Priests, warriors, merchants/commoners, servants • 1500-500 BCE – Vedas were written down • Samhitas - Hymns of praise to deities (Rig Veda) • Brahmanas - Ritual sacrifices to deities • Aranyakas - Teaching from spiritual masters • Upanishads - Teaching from spiritual masters

  3. The Vedic Tradition • Vedic Tradition probably incorporated ideas from the IVC (yoga, Siva) • Priestly, sacrificial rites viewed as necessary to uphold the cosmic order and nature

  4. Upanishads • Recorded between 600-400 BCE • Not concerned with Vedic rituals • Emphasis on private asceticism and self-realization • Led to Buddhism and Jainism

  5. Origins of Buddhism • 563-486 BCE - Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama

  6. Siddhartha Gautama Via Pali Canon: • Born a prince • Married at 16, had one son • Beheld 4 Sights (sick, old, dead, monk) • Renounced world at 29 • Left father’s palace, wife and son to search for an answer to suffering

  7. Buddha at Bodh Gaya • Enlightened at 35 in Bodh Gaya • Realized cause and cure for suffering • Taught for 45 years as itinerant monk / Died at 80

  8. Alexander the Great • Alexander heard of India’s riches and wanted to take it over

  9. Alexander the Great

  10. The Mauryan Dynasty324-184 BCE • Chandragupta Maurya took over all of northern India • Later renounced the throne to become a Jain monk • Chadragupta’s grandson, Ashoka, converted to and spread Buddhism

  11. Spread of Mauryan Empire CHANDRAGUPTA c. 298 BCE

  12. King Ashoka – Reign 272-232 BCE • Stretched the borders of the Mauryan empire to its furthest extent • After killing thousands in battle, King Ashoka lamented his deeds and erected pillars all over India expressing remorse for having killed

  13. King Ashoka’s Pillars • Solid, polished sandstone • Best examples of Mauryan Art • 10 remain standing • Erected in places associated with events in Buddha’s life • Best preserved pillar in Bihar state close to Nepalese border • Topped by seated lion • As lion is king of the jungle, so Buddha king of spiritual teachers • 32 feet high • Weighs around 40-50 tons

  14. Most famous pillar at Sarnath • Buddha’s first sermon in deer park • Four royal animals symbolize the four corners of the world • Elephant (east) • Horse (south) • Bull (west) • Lion (north) • Four wheels • wheel of the law/dharma • Four lions on top • 7 feet high

  15. Indian Flag Today

  16. Great Stupa at Sanchi • Built by Ashoka • 3-tiered umbrella: Buddha, Law, Sangha • (3 Jewels) • Umbrella within square enclosure: • Ancient practice of enclosing sacred trees • Four stone gates: 34 feet high

  17. From Stupa to Pagoda

  18. From Stupa to Pagoda • Stupa became pagoda in China and Japan

  19. Ajanta Rock Chambers in Ajanta For religious ceremonies and rooms to house monks

  20. Chambers are rectangular with pillars, altar, vaulted ceiling / Like Roman basilicas in the West

  21. Map of the Silk Road

  22. Map of the Silk Road

  23. Kushans • After fall of Mauryans in 183 BCE, Kushans rose to power in 1st century CE • Indo-Europeans • Controlled trade route between China and Rome • From Kushan, goods were shipped to Rome via Persian Gulf or Red Sea • Ended 3rd century CE (uncertain conditions)

  24. Buddhism traveled along Silk Road from India to China during 2nd century BCE • Indians and Chinese exchanged ideas and technological advances as well: astronomy, mathematics, linguistics, healthcare

  25. Gupta Dynasty • Pataliputra was the capital • Buddhists allowed to practice, but Hinduism was the Gupta sponsored religion • Hinduism was used to sanction their rule and to establish the order of caste society • Ruled indirectly. Left indigenous system intact and demanded only tribute (taxes) • Laws of Manu established as source of authority in Hindu orthodoxy

  26. Guptas continued • Huns invaded around 460 CE • Disrupted international trade and reduced Gupta wealth • Hun armies eventually gained control of northern and central India • After the fall of the Guptas, weak, decentralized rule characterized India though there was always great cultural cohesion

  27. Dunhuang Caves

  28. Buddhist Demographics • 1900: 30% of the world’s population was Buddhist • Loss of China, North and South Korea (Xty), Mongolia, Tibet to Communism • 1998: 6% of the world’s population is Buddhist • South Asia and East Asia • Latin America, Europe, North America, former USSR • .5% of the US population (ARIS, 2001)

  29. Greek presence and influence in India • Pillar - Greek Late Archaic Style • Located in Patna (Pataliputra) • Erected 3rd century BCE • In Patna Museum today

  30. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom • 250-125 BCE

  31. Greek presence and influence in India • Bilingual edict in Greek and Aramaic by King Ashoka • Located in Kandhahar • Located in the Kabul Museum today

  32. The Indo-Greek Kingdom • Founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom • Demetriuis I “the invincible” • Ruled from 205-171 BCE • Wearing a scalp of an elephant, symbol of his conquests of India

  33. Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180-10 BCE • Founded when Greco-Bactrian King, Demetrius, invaded India in 180 BCE, separating from the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

  34. The First Noble Truth • (1) Life is “dukkha” / suffering • Life can typically be unfulfilling and filled with insecurity • Even pleasure is gilded pain • Buddha identified 6 moments especially:birth, sickness, decrepitude, phobia of death, to be tied to what one dislikes, to be separated from what one loves

  35. The Second Noble Truth • Life’s dislocation is caused by “tanha” • “Desire” is not an accurate translation because Buddha advocated certain desires such as that for liberation and for the end of suffering of others • Sensory pleasure, fame/fortune, attachment to ideas, things to stay as is or be different

  36. The Third Noble Truth • There is a way out of this suffering

  37. The Fourth Noble Truth • The way to overcome suffering is to follow the 8-fold path

  38. 8-Fold Path / Wisdom • Right Knowledge • Knowledge of the 4 Noble Truths & Path • Impermanence (anicca in Pali) • No self (anatta in Pali) (anata in Japanese) • Train the mind to end suffering • Right Motivation • Focused on being freed from self-centeredness

  39. 8-Fold Path / Morality • Right Speech • Honesty in words / motives behind words • Right Behavior • Be selfless and charitable • 5 Precepts: do not kill, steal, lie, be unchaste, drink intoxicants • Right Livelihood • Monasticism or jobs that promote life and abide by 5 Precepts

  40. 8-Fold Path / Meditation • Right Effort • Persistent striving, long-term effort • Right Mindfulness • Keep the mind in control of senses and impulses • Non-carelessness, non-distraction • Right Meditation • Mental Discipline to quiet the mind • Mind reposing in its true condition

  41. Two Schools of Thought • Theravada (Hinayana) and Mahayana • Theravada: Buddha as enlightened human • Mahayana: Buddha as an incarnation of an universal principle

  42. Theravada • Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos • Buddha as person in history • Distinction between samsara/nirvana • One can be like the Buddha through dedication and practice • No supernatural help for enlightenment

  43. Theravadan Monks • About 500,000 monks in Southeast Asia • Shave heads • Dress in simple robes • Practice celibacy • Monastic lifestyle is necessary for nirvana • Five additional precepts: no eating after noon, no secular amusements, no accepting money, no sleeping in luxurious beds, no using perfume, etc.

  44. Mahayana • Mahayana Buddhism emerges in the 1st century CE • India, Tibet, Nepal, China, Korea, Japan, Singapore, Vietnam • Arhat ideal replaced by Bodhisattva ideal • Doctrine of the “Three Bodies” (Trikaya) • Mayahanists can pray to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas

  45. Bodhisattva of Compassion

  46. Bodhisattva of Wisdom, Intelligence, Power

  47. Maitreya

  48. Mahayana Trikaya • Body of Transformation (nirmanakaya) • The Buddha living on Earth as Siddhartha Gautama • Body of Bliss (sambhogakaya) • Realm of Buddhas and celestial Bodhisattvas • The heavenly Buddha concerned with our world: Amitabha / Amida • Body of Essence (dharmakaya) • Buddha Principle as eternal, cosmic reality / pervades universe

  49. Mahayana Scriptures • GARLAND SUTRA (Avatamsaka-Sutra / 2nd century C.E.) • Interrelatedness of phenomena and interpenetration of absolute with phenomena • Asserts that benevolence or compassion is the fundamental principle of Mahayana • Incorporated the 4th century C.E. sutra called Dasabhumika • Describes 10 stages of Bodhisattvahood • After the 6th station, one became a celestial Bodhisattva who leads others to salvation • Incorporated the 2nd century C.E. sutra called Gandavyuha • Focuses on Bodhisattva Manjusri and attainment of Buddhahood by Sudhana