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ELECTRONS AND THEIR LOCATIONPowerPoint Presentation

ELECTRONS AND THEIR LOCATION

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### ELECTRONS AND THEIR LOCATION

ELECTRON ADDRESSES

RULES TO REMEMBER

- HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE –Cannot know the exact location of an electron. Fundamentally impossible to know both the location and momentum/velocity of an electron at the same time.
- The quantum mechanical model merely suggests the probability of the electron location.
- No circular orbits – Sorry Bohr!
- Instead: orbitals - the 3-dimensional region is which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom

Aufbau Principle

- Electrons fill the lowest possible energy level.
- Energy levels correspond to period number on the Periodic Table.
- How many energy levels are there?

orbitals

- Textbook definition: the 3-dimensional region is which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom
- s on page 371
- p on page 372
- d on page 374

Pauli Exclusion Principle

- No more than two (2) electrons in an orbital.

Hund’s Rule(s)

- Orbitals of equal energy must fill singly before doubling.
- (ex. all d’s must fill with 1 electron each before the second electron can fill in – like dealing cards)

- All electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin direction
- Pairs of electrons in the same orbital have opposite spin.

QUANTUM NUMBERS

- Describe the electron’s “address”
- 1stQuantum is the principle quantum – describes the energy level, or period.
- 2nd Quantum describes the shape of the orbitals. s,p,d,f
- 3rd Quantum describes the orientation of the orbital
- 4th Quantum describes the spin of the electron

- What do you think the 5th energy level looks like?
- The pattern stops – it looks like the 4th energy level
- What about 6 & 7?

Quick Quiz

- A. How many electrons can the p orbitals hold if filled?
- B. How many kinds of orbitals are in the 4th energy level?
- C. What are the orbitals of the 2nd energy level?
- D. How many f orbitals are there?
- E. How many electrons can any one orbital hold?
- F. At most, how many electrons in the 2nd energy level?

Orbital Diagrams or Orbital Configurations

- Use boxes and arrows to represent electrons in various energy levels.
- Boxes must be labeled with regard to energy level and orbitals.

Practice

- Draw orbital diagrams for elements # 4,6,9,15, and 26

Lewis Dot Structures

- Element symbol represents atom nucleus and inner electrons.
- Dots around the symbol represent valence (outermost energy level) electrons.

practice

- Draw Lewis Dot structures for elements 1-11

Bohr Models

- Use concentric circles to represent energy levels and the number of electrons in each.

Practice

- Draw Bohr models for elements # 2, 3, 5, 9, and 16

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