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Unit 5 Becoming an Industrial Society- Answers. Complete the Guided Reading as you view the Power Point. Goal 5:. Objective 5.01: Evaluate the influence of immigration and rapid industrialization on urban life. Essential Questions: • How did immigration and industrialization shape urban life?

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unit 5 becoming an industrial society answers

Unit 5Becoming an Industrial Society- Answers

Complete the Guided Reading as you view the Power Point.

goal 5
Goal 5:
  • Objective 5.01: Evaluate the influence of immigration and rapid industrialization on urban life.
  • Essential Questions:
  • • How did immigration and industrialization shape urban life?
  • • How did the rapid industrialization of the Gilded Age create economic, social, and political change in the U.S.?
  • • Did immigration and rapid industrialization have a positive or negative impact on the economic and social structure of the United States?
important inventions
Important Inventions:
  • After the Civil War the U.S. continued to become anindustrializedsociety
  • Inventions that helped industrialization:
    • Telegraph- Samuel Morse- increased communicationfor people and businesses
    • Telephone- Alexander Graham Bell- increased communication for people and businesses
    • Light Bulb- Thomas Edison-people could see after sunset, work longerhours, and produce more products
    • Elevators- allowed people and businesses to operate in tall buildings
    • Typewriter- increased the rate that letters and documents could be written and exchanged
migration to the cities and immigration to the united states
Migration to the Cities and Immigration to the United States:
  • Many people left their farms and moved to the citywhere they could earn higher wages
    • Rising farm costs and declining prices for agricultural products
  • Many people from other countries moved to the United States in the late 1800’s
    • Irish- potato famine
    • Displaced workers from Europe due to industrialization
  • Most came from Europe and settled in the Northeast
migration to the cities and immigration to the united states1
Migration to the Cities and Immigration to the United States:
  • Why is it important?
    • To handle the large number of immigrants the federal government opened Ellis Island in 1892
    • Located near Statue of Liberty in New York harbor
    • Reception center for immigrants arriving by ship
    • Immigrants were examined by doctors to avoid the spread of disease
    • Mentally and physically disabled were often not allowed entrance into the United States
discovery education videos
Discovery Education Videos:
  • Visit Ellis Island
  • Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island
migration to the cities and immigration to the united states2
Migration to the Cities and Immigration to the United States:
  • Immigrants experienced culture shock as they moved to the United States and were surrounded by many different people an cultures they were not accustomed to
  • The increased number of immigrants and people moving to cities made urban areas population grow during the late 1800’s
  • Before 1870 most immigrants were from WesternEurope and found it easy to adapt to United States culture
migration to the cities and immigration to the united states3
Migration to the Cities and Immigration to the United States:
  • After 1870 many immigrants came from Easternand Southern Europe
  • Why is it important?
    • Most spoke different languages
    • Many practiced different religions such as Judaism and Catholicism
    • This caused most Eastern and Southern European immigrants to have a difficult transition into American culture
migration to the cities and immigration to the united states4
Migration to the Cities and Immigration to the United States:
  • The American culture developed into a melting pot
  • Melting Pot: a place where people of all backgrounds could come and blend into American society
  • Most immigrants did not want to assimilate into American culture they wanted to maintain the traditions of their own cultures
  • As more people from different countries moved to America, cities began to experience cultural pluralism
problems and concerns
Problems and Concerns:
  • Positive effects of immigration: greater diversity, larger labor force for industries
  • Problems from immigration:
    • Americans thought immigrants took their jobs
    • Americans mistrusted foreigners
    • Americans were suspicious of ethnic ghettos
  • Ethnic Ghettos: Areas in the inner cities where immigrants from certain regions or countries lived together due to common culture, language, and heritage
problems and concerns1
Problems and Concerns:
  • Many Americans saw immigrants’ desire to continue their culture as disloyal to the United States
  • Religious differenced were a big problem concerning immigration
  • Most Americans were Protestant while most immigrants were Catholic or Jewish- this created a problem for many Americans
  • Problems also arose within the immigrant communities as people from different nations and ethnic groups developed rivalries with one another
nativism and restrictions on immigration
Nativism and Restrictions on Immigration:
  • As ideas of nativism grew (people opposed to immigration) hate groups like the Know-Nothings increased
  • Immigrants often faced violence and discrimination
  • The government reacted to nativism concerns by passinglawstorestrictimmigration to the U.S.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the U.S.- was not repealed until 1943
living and working conditions among immigrants
Living and Working Conditions Among Immigrants:
  • Many immigrants experienced difficult living and working conditions
  • Many lived in tenements- small, overcrowded apartments
  • Large families often lived in one room apartments that were unsanitary and unsafe
  • Immigrants worked long hours underhazardous conditions for low wages in factories
  • Some worked in sweatshops- makeshift factories in small apartments or unused buildings
  • Why is it important?
    • Sweatshops were poorly lit, poorly ventilated and unsafe
    • Sweatshops would hire poor workers to work long hours for little pay
reformers and the social gospel
Reformers and the Social Gospel:
  • Thetroublesfaced by immigrants inspired many reformers to offer theirhelp
  • Jacob Riis wrote “How the Other Half Lives” and was able to get New York to pass lawsaimed at improving tenements living conditions
  • Jane Addams- part of the Social Gospel- people who believed their Christian faith required them to take an active role in social issues of the day
reformers and the social gospel1
Reformers and the Social Gospel:
  • Jane Addams is referred to as the Mother of Social Work
  • She opened and ran Hull House- a settlement house in Chicago
  • Settlement House- established in poor neighborhoods where social activists would live and from which they would offer assistance to immigrants and underprivileged citizens
urban life in the age of industrialization
Urban Life in the Age of Industrialization:
  • Urban life changedas populations in cities grew
  • Electric Trolley- transportation that allowed people to live outside the city but still be able to work and play inside the city (later people used trains and subways)
  • Why is it important?
    • Suburbs developed-
    • Divisions in economic classes developed
      • Middle and upper classes moved to the suburbs and left the poorer classes and immigrants in the cities
urban life in the age of industrialization1
Urban Life in the Age of Industrialization:
  • Onfarmspeople worked until all the work was completed
    • Leisure activities were limited to certain celebrations and seasons
  • With industrialization factory workers worked by the clock and looked for new activities to entertain them after hours
urban life in the age of industrialization2
Urban Life in the Age of Industrialization:
  • Why is it important?
  • They began to look for leisure activities to entertain themselves after work
    • Saloons became popular as places to drink, meet people, and talk
    • Dance halls and cabarets developed (musical shows)
    • Amusement parks and Vaudeville shows developed (variety shows like America’s Got Talent, X Factor)
    • Movies and spectator sports developed
    • City parks developed
      • New York’s Central Park is the most famous
        • Designed by Frederick Olmstead- a famous landscape architect
          • Desigen Olmstead Park in Raleigh
goal 51
Goal 5:
  • Objective 5.02: Explain how business and industrial leaders accumulated wealth and wielded political and economic power.
  • Essential Questions:
  • • What characteristics were vital to the success of industrial leaders of the Gilded Age?
  • • How did captains of industry accumulate wealth and power?
  • • Should an individual be allowed to accumulate as much wealth as possible?
the rise of big business
The Rise of Big Business:
  • Industrialization brought new opportunities and chances to make money
  • Some Americans became very, very wealthy
  • This wealth changed the role of American business and the role of the government in the nation’s economy (economy deals with money and business)
giants of early u s industrialization
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • STEEL!!!!!!
  • 1850’s Henry Bessemer developed a method for making steel known as the Bessemer process
  • Manufacturers could make steel much quicker and more efficiently
  • Why is it important?
    • Increased production of steel meant faster expansion of railroads and more construction of buildings
    • Steel became very important to the nation’s economy
giants of early u s industrialization1
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • Andrew Carnegie- dominated the steel industry
  • Carnegie’s company controlled the steel industry through a process known as vertical integration- the company owns the company that produces the finished product but also the companies that provide the materials necessary for production- they own it all from start to finish
giants of early u s industrialization2
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • Carnegie owned steel mills, iron ore and coal mines, railroads and ships that transported resources and products
  • Carnegie formed a monopoly- control over the supply of a product with no competition
  • Carnegie believed in the Gospel of Wealth- responsibility of wealthy to spend money on helping others, not waste it
giants of early u s industrialization3
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • OIL!!!!!!
  • Edwin Drake successfully drilled for oil in Pennsylvania
  • John D. Rockefeller- became one of the nation's richest and most powerful businessmen
  • Rockefeller owned Standard Oil- the nation’s first trust
  • Trust- business arrangement under which several companies unite into one system-GOALis to destroy competition and create monopolies
  • Through the trust Rockefeller was able to dictate prices, eliminate competition and control the U.S. industry
  • Like Carnegie, Rockefeller used vertical integration and owned all the steps in producing his oil
giants of early u s industrialization4
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt- extended his New York Central railroad to Chicago, Illinois
  • Why is it important?
    • Travelers could go from New York to Chicago without having to change trains
    • Helped railroad industry by making travel faster and easier for passengers
giants of early u s industrialization5
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • The change in business brought a new business leader- finance capitalist- bankers who applied economic influence through companies’ stocks and bonds
  • J.P. Morgan was the most powerful finance capitalist
  • Morgan eventually influenced control over banks, insurance companies, and stock market operations
  • Morgan and his company had assets of over $22 billion
  • Morgan bought Carnegie’s steel company and formed US Steel- the price he paid made Carnegie the richest man in the WORLD!
giants of early u s industrialization6
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • George Westinghouse founded Westinghouse Electric Companyand made electricity more accessible to all people and developed new ways electrical power could be used
giants of early u s industrialization7
Giants of Early U.S. Industrialization:
  • Industrial leaders established powerthrough monopolies, trusts, and interlocking directorates
  • Interlocking Directorates allowed directors of one company to serve as directors for other companies
  • Why is it important?
    • These leaders controlled entire industries, increased their wealth, and eliminated competition
    • These leaders became super wealthy during the age of industrialization
social darwinism and the gilded age
Social Darwinism and the Gilded Age:
  • Mid 1800’s Herbert Spencer introduced a concept known as Social Darwinism
  • Social Darwinism- used the theories of Charles Darwin to argue life is a battle for the “survival of the fittest”(the strongest survive)
  • Many business leaders supported this idea and used it as a foundation for their business beliefs
  • They used it to support their belief in laissez-faire capitalism- keep government out of business or try to regulate it
  • They believed it was best for the country and the economy if only those industries who were the strongest survived
social darwinism and the gilded age1
Social Darwinism and the Gilded Age:
  • They believed that supply and demand could dictate business actions without the “unnatural” interference of government
  • Many people agreed with the ideas of the business leaders
  • One reason was the belief that anyone could become rich if they tried hard enough
  • In the children’s book “Horatio Alger” Horatio was able to go from poverty to wealth through hard work and determination
social darwinism and the gilded age2
Social Darwinism and the Gilded Age:
  • Not everyone agreed with Social Darwinism
  • Many believed that the wealth of a few came to them at the expense of the poor
  • They referred to the leaders of industry not as captains of industry, but as robber barons- greedy, rich, unethical businessmen
  • They did not believe business leaders should become rich while workers remained poor with unsafe, unsanitary working conditions
social darwinism and the gilded age3
Social Darwinism and the Gilded Age:
  • The period from 1877 to the early 1900’s became known as the Gilded Age
  • The Gilded Age is a term from writer Mark Twain- it refers to a time when a thin layer of prosperity was covering the poverty and corruption that existed in most of American society
goal 52
Goal 5:
  • Objective 5.03: Assess the impact of labor unions on industry and the lives of workers.
  • Essential Questions:
  • • Why social, economic, and political factors led to the need for the formation of labor unions?
  • • To what extent were labor unions effective in meeting the political, economic, and social needs of laborers?
  • • How effective were labor unions in improving the lives of American workers?
slide46

Workers

and the

Labor Unions

conditions of the worker
Conditions of the Worker:
  • Work in factories was monotonous, with long hours, low pay and very dangerous
  • Workers did not have Social Security or unemployment benefits at this time
  • Child Labor was common
  • To help pay the bills children as young as 5 years old would workin factories and not go to school
  • With no education they had little hope of every working another job or improving life’s situation
the unions
The Unions:
  • Unions- organizations of workers formed to protect the interest of its members
  • 2 kinds of unions
  • Craft Union- unions for skilled workers with a specific craft
  • Trade Union- unions for less skilled workers
  • Famous Unions from the late 1800’s
    • Knights of Labor
    • American federation of Labor
the knights of labor
The Knights of Labor:
  • 1869- hoped to organize all working men and women into a single union
  • Included factory workers, farmers, shopkeepers, office workers
  • It included African Americans
  • Supported equal pay for equal work, 8 hour workdays, the end of child labor
  • Union ended by the 1890’s
the american federation of labor afl
The AmericanFederation of Labor (AFL):
  • 1886- Craft Union led by Samuel Gompers
  • Supported issues ofwages, working hours and working conditions
  • Used strikes and boycotts as economic pressure to support workers
  • Strike- when employees refuse to work until business owners meet certain demands
  • Boycott- refusal to buy or pay for certain products to force owners to change policies or actions
the american federation of labor afl1
The AmericanFederation of Labor (AFL):
  • The AFL used collective bargaining and mediation
  • Collective Bargaining- employees negotiate as a united group to increase their bargaining power
  • Mediation- using a neutral their party to help negotiate an agreement acceptable to both sides you and your friend get angry and Mrs. Zappiahelps you resolve it)
  • Arbitration- form of mediation where the third party has the power to make a decision for all involved (you and your friend get angry and Mr. Colvin tells you how it will be resolved)
the american federation of labor afl2
The AmericanFederation of Labor (AFL):
  • AFL supported Closed Shop workplaces where employers could only hire union members
  • They hoped toincreasetheir power of negotiation by having a united workforce
  • Closed Shops forced employers to deal with the union because they could not hire non-union employees
employer response to unions
Employer Response to Unions:
  • Employers hated unions
  • Many forced employees to sign yellow dog contractswhich forbade workers from joining unions
  • Some placed union workers on blacklists- lists of workers employers refused to hire
  • Some used lockouts- locking out employees from returning to work
  • Some would hire scabs as replacement workers during strikes
employer response to unions1
Employer Response to Unions:
  • The governmentsupportedemployers during strikes
  • Employers asked the government for injunctions- court orders that forbade strikes because they violated the law or threatened public interest
  • Some employers used violence and intimidation to stop labor unions
strikes and confrontations
Strikes and Confrontations:
  • 1877 Railroad workers went on strike in the Midwest and East over wages
  • Workers responded to the threat of wage cuts with violence
  • President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in federal troops twice to stop the protests
  • The railroads carried the mail
  • The mail is under the jurisdiction of the federal government sofederal law gave the president the power to use force to stop any strike that mightinterferewith the mail
  • Why is it important?
  • The Great Railway Strike of 1877 showed employers they could appeal to the federal government for help in dealing with strikes
strikes and confrontations1
Strikes and Confrontations:
  • May 1886 workers across the nation fought for an 8 hour workday
  • May 4, 1886 demonstrators held a rally at Chicago’s Haymarket Square
  • A group of radicals (extremists) set off abomband killed 7 police officers
  • A riot broke out- police and protesters were killed
  • The Haymarket Riot turned people againstunions- they identified then withanarchy and violence
strikes and confrontations2
Strikes and Confrontations:
  • 1892 Homestead Strike- steel workers at the Carnegie Steel plant in Homestead, Pennsylvania went on strike
  • The Pinkertons, a private police force, was hired to stop the strike
  • Strikers and Pinkertons shot at each other- several people were killed or wounded
  • The public saw the strikers as violent
  • The union was forced to end the strike
strikes and confrontations3
Strikes and Confrontations:
  • 1894 employees went to railroad car industrialist George Pullmanto protest the laying off of workers
  • Pullman fired three of the labor representatives
  • The union called for astrike
  • Pullman closed the plant to avoid having to negotiate
  • American Railway Union called for a national boycottof Pullman cars
  • 120,000workers went on strike
  • The federal government took out an injunctionagainst the union
  • President Cleveland sent in federal troops to enforce the injunction
  • Why is it important?
    • Pullman Strike set a precedent for factory owners to appeal to the courts to end strikes
goal 53
Goal 5:
  • Objective 5.04: Describe the changing role of government in economic and political affairs.
  • Essential Questions:
  • • How did the government’s role in economic and political affairs change during this era?
  • • To what extent did industrialization affect the relationships between government, business, and the worker?
  • • How did technological advancement affect industrialization and the role of the government?
  • • To what extent was the government’s changing role necessary and positive in this era?
slide60

The Role of Government in

Economic and Political Affairs

slide61

Corruption

in

Government

the spoils system and the pendleton act
The Spoils System and the Pendleton Act:
  • As you know from Unit 3- after the death of Abraham Lincoln corruption became more common in the federal government under President Grant
  • Andrew Jackson began the spoils system of giving government jobs to friends and family
  • 1881- a man who was angry he was not given a job he was promised, assassinated President James Garfield
  • Why is it important?
  • Garfield’s death lead to the Pendleton Act
  • It established the Civil Service Commission- requires applicants to pass a civil service exam before being hired for any government position
  • Now jobs were given out based on merit rather than friendship or politics
political machines
Political Machines:
  • Corruptionwas common in local and state government in the 1800’s
  • The fast growth of population in cities meant government had to increase police, fire departments, and transportation systems, public services, sewage, etc.
  • This meant more public money and a greater power for government
  • People fought for government positions to establish control and power
  • Political Machines- unofficial group with the goal of keeping a certain party or person in power
political machines1
Political Machines:
  • Political Machines were led by a boss
  • Graft- the use of your political position or job to gain wealth
  • Politicians gave contracts and political favors in exchange for money and as a way to keep their power
  • Most famous boss was New York City’s Boss Tweed
  • Boss Tweed ran Tammany Hall- a political club that controlled the city’s Democratic Party
  • Tweed stole $100,000 million from the city
political machines2
Political Machines:
  • Political cartoonist Thomas Nast helped to expose Boss Tweed and bring him down
  • Tammany Hall continued to dominate New York City politics after Boss Tweed lost his power
government regulation
Government Regulation:
  • 1884- several scandals hit the presidential campaigns of the Republicans and Democrats
  • Democrat Grover Cleveland had a baby outside of marriage- he admitted to it and was seen as more trustworthy as the Republican candidate
  • Mugwumps- a group of reform Republicans who switched sides and voted for Cleveland and helped him win the election of 1884
  • President Cleveland began to regulate business
  • Signed the Interstate Commerce Act which began the Interstate Commerce Commission
  • He regulated railroad rates for trains traveling between states
government regulation1
Government Regulation:
  • 1890- Under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Actwhich made monopolies illegal- ensured competition
  • 1895- United States v. EC Knight Co- the Supreme Court ruled under the Sherman Antitrust Act the governmenthad the authority to break up monopolies in the distribution of products, but NOTin the manufacturing of products
  • Why is it important?
    • Major victory for business and a setback in the fight against monopolies
the populists response to corruption
The Populists Response to Corruption:
  • Populists- political group who fought for the rights of farmers, and other workers
  • Populists called for Political Reforms:
    • Secret Ballots: votes to be secret (also known as the Australian Ballot)
    • Referendum: when citizens vote directly on certain issues rather than have representatives do it (school bond)
      • Wanted president and US Senators to be elected directly by the people
    • Recall: the power of the people to remove a corrupt official from office before their term expired
    • Initiative:people can force a vote on an issue if they could petition enough support from registered voters- people would have a voice in the political agenda of the government
the populists response to corruption1
The Populists Response to Corruption:
  • Why is it important?
    • Even though the Populists movement faded by the early 1900’s…
      • Populists helped make changes in government
      • Populists helped make changes in the regulation of business
      • Many populists goals became reality during the progressive Movement of the early 1900’s
discovery education videos1
Discovery Education Videos
  • American West and Labor Unions
  • The Development of New Cities
  • Urban Transformation
  • Miners Strike