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Chapter 20: An Industrial Society 1860-1914. The Growth of Industry Section: 1. Industrial Revolution Continues. Late 1700’s saw establishment of textile mills in New England (Northeast US). By mid-1800’s, factories spread to other industries and regions.

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chapter 20 an industrial society 1860 1914
Chapter 20: An Industrial Society1860-1914

The Growth of Industry

Section: 1

industrial revolution continues
Industrial Revolution Continues
  • Late 1700’s saw establishment of textile mills in New England (Northeast US).
  • By mid-1800’s, factories spread to other industries and regions.
  • Several factors lead to high growth…
plentiful natural resources
Plentiful Natural Resources
  • America has large supplies of forests, water, minerals, including coal, iron, copper, silver, and iron.
improved transportation
Improved Transportation
  • Early 1800’s saw steamboats and canals improve transportation.
  • Following Civil War, RR production boomed, making transportation of goods easier.
growing population
Growing Population
  • From 1860 to 1900, US population grew from 31.5 million to 76 million.
  • This led to growing demand for goods, spurring industry and supply.
high immigration
High Immigration
  • 1860-1900, 14 million people immigrated to US.
  • Many knew specialized trades, such as metalworking.
new inventions
New Inventions
  • New machines helped improve on processes.
  • Inventors applied for patents: government document giving an inventor exclusive rights to make or sell his/her product.
investment capital
Investment Capital
  • Financial resources that have cash value.
  • Factories, equipment, land, and machinery owned by business to produce goods and services.
  • Human Capital
investment capital continued
Investment Capital Continued…
  • Capital (money) was provided to businesses by banks (hoping to share in the profits).
  • Businesses used capital (borrowed money) to purchase equipment, factories, labor.
what are the major growth industries 6
What are the major growth industries? (6)
  • Plentiful Natural Resources
  • Improved Transportation (RR)
  • Growing Population
  • High Immigration
  • New Inventions
  • Investment Capital
petroleum discovered
Petroleum Discovered
  • Petroleum: Oily flammable liquid (1855).
  • Edwin Drake begins drilling in 1859 & strikes oil in August.
  • Launches oil industry
business cycle
Business Cycle
  • Pattern of ups (boom) & downs (bust) in the economy.
business cycle continued
Business Cycle Continued…
  • Good times (up swing) people buy more and invest more heavily.
  • Bad times (down swing) people spend and invest less.
  • Down swings (recessions) lead to higher unemployment rates, less goods produced, businesses may close.
recent us recession
Recent US Recession
  • When was the last time the US had a recession?
steel industry
Steel Industry
  • Prior to mid-1800’s, steel was expensive due to process that used large amounts of coal.
  • Henry Bessemer & William Kelly (1850’s) come up with new design using less coal.
steel continued
Steel Continued…
  • Bessemer steel process: increased steel output by 500 times 1867-1900.
  • Plows, barbed wire, nails, & beams for buildings now made out of steel instead of iron.
  • Main use still for RR’s.
electric power
Electric Power
  • 1870’s invention of the generator
  • Generator: machine producing electric current
thomas edison
Thomas Edison
  • 1876 opens laboratory, employing many assistants.
  • Received over 1,000 patents
  • Invents safe light bulb
  • Invents system to deliver electric to buildings
alexander graham bell
Alexander Graham Bell
  • Taught deaf students in Boston.
  • Invents device to transmit speech using electricity.
  • Receives patent in March 1876 for telephone.
jan matzeliger
Jan Matzeliger
  • Immigrant from Dutch Guiana.
  • Invents machine that fastens soles to bottom of shoes.
  • Increases production by 1,400%.
technology changes industry
Technology Changes Industry
  • Telephone industry grows rapidly, selling 50,000 telephones by 1880.
female labor force
Female Labor Force
  • Numbers of inventions helped employ women.
  • Switchboard operators (1880’s)
  • Typewriting (1870’2)
  • Sewing Machine patented by Isaac Singer (1851)
  • Sewing machine leads to ready-made clothes.
  • Came in standard sizes
  • People now bought clothes instead of making them.
  • RR’s continued to have largest impact through mid-1800’s.
transcontinental railroad
Transcontinental Railroad
  • RR spanning the entire United States.
  • Bill passed in 1862 to allow two companies to build, helping lure settlers to the West.
two railroads
Two Railroads
  • Central Pacific started in Sacramento, California, and build east.
  • Union Pacific started in Omaha, Nebraska, and built west.
government involvement
Government Involvement
  • RR’s needed large amounts of money to build. Government lent millions of $.
  • Government also provided 20 square miles for every one mile of track. Excess land could be sold for profit.
chinese rail workers
Chinese Rail Workers
  • Due to labor shortages (mining, ranching, etc.), Chinese labor was essential.
  • At peak of production, 10,000 Chinese worked on RR.
variety of backgrounds
Variety of Backgrounds
  • RR’s hired former soldiers from North and South, former slaves, and Irish immigrants (largest).
  • Both companies occasionally hired Native Americans.
transcontinental rr connected
Transcontinental RR Connected
  • May 10th, 1869, Central and Union lines connect in Promontory, Utah.
  • 1869 RR earned $300 million
  • 1890 RR earned $734 million
railroad changes time
Railroad Changes Time
  • Originally, communities had set their own times.
  • Crossing several time zones caused problems
  • RR comes up with standard time: dividing the US into four time zones.
  • Went into effect on November 18th, 1883
  • However, Congress doesn’t adopt till 1918.
social economic change
Social & Economic Change
  • RR linked east and west economies. Lumber, livestock, and grain carried east.
  • Lifeline to settlers, bringing food, equipment.
  • RR’s push Native Americans out.
  • RR’s allowed urban centers to move in-land, rather than being connected to waterway.
railroad growth
Railroad Growth