Lesson Plan On Volcanoes By. Dan Maslanka
Intro. To Volcanoes • In a few minutes we will watch the video, Volcano!. Let’s first begin with some basic questions and write them on the board to be discuss • What is a volcano? • Where are they found? • Why do they erupt?
Basic Makeup of The Earth • The Earth’s outermost shell of the Earth, called the lithosphere is seperated into sections called tectonic plates which can collide into each other, move away from each other or even slide under one another.
Where Do Most Volcanoes Come From? • Most of the volcanoes, 80 percent of them, on land occur at a subduciton zone, which is where one plate slides under another causing part of that plate to melt and form magma. Magma is essentially melted rock caused from the heat of the Earth’s mantle which is located beneath the lithosphere. Some volcanoes also occur in the middle of tectonic plates, called hotspots, places of intense heat.
Subduction Zone Clip • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0902/es0902page01.cfm?chapter_no=09
Materials Released During An Erutpion • Lava- magma that has erupted from a volcano • Tephra- fragments of any size lava or rock that are blasted into the air from a volcanic eruption • Cinders- pieces of fragmented lava • Ash • Gases http://www.nps.gov/havo/visitor/lava.htm http://www.virtual-geology.info/vft/2004-claire/redoubt.htm
Why Does A Volcano Erupt • Fissures and vents in the earth allow for the escape of gas and magma. Since magma is less dense than the surrounding rock, it flows up and out of the volcano. The amount of gas in the magma affects the size and force of the eruption. The more gases built up inside the magma, the more forceful the eruption is. After the initial explosive eruption, quieter lava flows can occur. In the clip below, look for the tephra, lava and cinder erupting out. • http://www.thirteen.org/savageearth/animations/volcanoes/index.html
Activity #1Making A Flipbook • Directions: • Cut at least 8 notebook cards in half, you can always cut more if needed. • Draw a the picture of a volcano and its progressing eruption on the cards. • You can view my model flipbook if needed. • Label tephra, lava and cinders on the appropriate picture and color in the pictures with colored pencils also.
Types of Volcanoes • Volcanoes are usually recognized by most people as big mountains. Their size is due to the repeat of volcanic eruptions and the materials released from and eruption. There are three types of volcanoes. 1)Stratovolcanoes- form from repeated eruptions of lava and tephra resulting in the buildup of layers, symmetrical cones and steep sides.
Types of Volcanoes (continued) 2) Cinder Cones- form from lava blasted into the air that forms cinders, fragmented lava pieces that fall back down and gather around the volcano’s main vent or fissure and create a cone shape. These are the smallest volcanoes.
Types of Volcanoes (continued) 3) Shield Volcanoes-form from overflowing eruptions of lava that constantly build on one another to form gentle sloping sides. These volcanoes can be very long and wide in size.
Activity #2Building The Three Types of Volcanoes • Directions: • Split up into groups of three from the assigned list on the chalkboard. • Using the picture on the sheet that you have been given, build that type of volcano out of the modeling clay provided to you. • After you have completed the volcano on your sheet, consult with the other students in your group on how to build their volcanoes. • When you have completed all three volcanoes, sit quietly in your seat till everyone is done.
Impact of Volcanic Eruptions • Impact of the Ash- can generate lightning which can further ignite forest fires, cause human death from asphyxiation (suffocation), accumulate on plants and destroy them, and cover the surrounding towns costing them time and money to clear it away • Impact on Climate- depending on the richness of the sulfur content, temperatures can be reduced due to the haze the sulfur causes that reflects the sun’s radiation, this haze can last for years. • Impact on Mudflows- the hot volcanic particles can melt the nearby surrounding snow and ice on some mountains causing devastating mudflows mixed with all sorts of volcanic debris, volcanic mudflows are also known as lahars • Ex. Of mudflow devastation- in 1985, the eruption from Nevada Del Ruiz, created large volumes of mudflows due to the high amount of ice and snow causing the smothering of the town of Amero resulting in 23,000 deaths
Picture of a Volcanic Mudflow This man is collecting a sample from the volcanic mudflow. http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/pinatubo/lahar/scan-005.gif
Activity #3Erupting A Model Volcano • Return to your groups of 3 and choose one of the volcanoes in your group to use • From the front table, send one person up to grab a cup with ¼ cup of vinegar in it and the small cup of baking soda. • Make a slot in the volcano for the cup and put it in. • Each group will come up with their volcano and attempt to create the best eruption.
Short Research Paper • Requirements: • 1 page in length, double spaced, 12 font size • Use at least 5 of the terms covered in lecture. • Include a bibliography of websites used, at least two including the one given • What To Research? • You will use the website below as a starting point for your research as well as any other websites or books you find useful. • http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/current_volcs/current.html • What Must Be Included? • How long the volcano has been active or extinct and when was the last eruption? • Did the eruption(s) cause any damage to the nearby surroundings? If so, what, ex. Damage to buildings, trees, any deaths, etc. Did the eruption have any other effects on the surrounding environment. • What type of volcano is it, how big is it and where is it located? • Is the volcano monitored and if so, how is it monitored? • Extra Credit: How did the volcano get it’s name?