ELT CURRICULUM & INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 1. Compiled by Clarry Sada Email : email@example.com Blog: clarrysada.wordpress.com. What is curriculum?. Curriculum is said to be a very ill-defined term (Huang, 1991).
ELT CURRICULUM & INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 1 Compiled by Clarry Sada Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Blog: clarrysada.wordpress.com
What is curriculum? • Curriculum is said to be a very ill-defined term (Huang, 1991). • It may carry different meanings when used by teachers, schools and academics. What makes the matter worse is that it is used interchangably with terms like syllabus, examination syllabus and instruction (Chang, 1998). • In this session, we would try to clarify what it is.
Syllabus and Curriculum • "A syllabus is typically a list of content areas which are to be assessed.” (Print, 1993) • "A curriculum shows by what kind of educational activities the teacher will fulfill the requirements of the syllabus.... The curriculum is primarily concerned with method and therefore with education; it is made up of pedagogical directives, intended to provide assistance, advice, suggestions and information to assist the teachers in carrying out his task successfully.." (Dottrens, 1962).
"The curriculum usually contains a statement of aims of specific objectives, it indicates some selection and organization of content, it either implies or manifest certain patterns of learning and teaching, whether because the objectives demand them or because the content organization require them. Finally it induces a program of evaluation of the outcomes." (Taba, 1952)
Curriculum and Instruction • "Curriculum is 'a system of planned actions for instruction' and instruction is the 'system for putting the plans into action.” (MacDonald, 1965) • "Basically the curriculum is what happens to children in school as a result of what teachers do." (Kansas, 1958)
"By 'curriculum' we mean the planned experiences offered to the learner under the guidance of the school.” (Wheeler, 1967) • "Instruction is the delivery of information and activities learners' attainment of intended, specific learning goals. In other words, instruction is the conduct of activities that we focused on learners learning specific things." (Smith & Ragan, 1993, p.2)
Elements of a curriculum Objectives Content Methods Evaluation
Curriculum Dimensions 1) Platform 2) Objectives 3) Student entry behaviours 4) Assessment tools & procedures 5) Instructional materials 6) Learning experiences 7) Teaching strategies 8) Content 9) Time
The Tylerian Model This model was developed by Ralph Tyler to simplify the curriculum development process. Consists of four primary steps… • Development of performance objectives • Development of activities • Organization of activities • Evaluation
The Tylerian Model was expanded by Doll (1986)to include: • Statement of need, based on assessment • Statement of objective • Content list and organizational plan • Description of learning experiences • Evaluation plan • Plan to solicit support for the curriculum
The final model that we will look at is the Ten-Step Curriculum Planning Model. This model first appeared in the NASSP Bulletin in 1984 in an article by Zenger and Zenger. It is an inclusive, organized approach that certainly meets the definition of “systematic model.” It is commonly used in the school setting. The article is not available on the web as a full text article, therefore, I will mail a copy to you.
Evaluate Curriculum Identify Curricular Need Implement New Curriculum Ten-Step Curriculum Planning Process Model Develop Goals and Objectives Design New Curriculum Identify Resources and Restraints Select New Curriculum Organize Curriculum Committees Identify New Curriculum Establish Roles of Personnel
Selecting and Organizing Content • Planning curriculum similar to guided tour • Various options of how to reach destination (broad program goals) • Planning itinerary in advance aids in avoidance of confusion—saves time • Broadest level involves selecting, structuring subject matter to be taught to reach broad program goals • Learning becomes development of a series of connections among concepts that hold real meaning and relevance for learner
Concepts Defined and Characterized • Concept is a key idea, topic, or main thought • What a person thinks about a particular subject or topic • Core and abstract meanings that an individual attaches to something Core of meanings is enmeshed in feelings and emotions that a person associates with it…words or symbols used to communicate ideas or concepts
Developing Conceptual Outlines • Conceptual Outline product resulting from organization of selected concepts into logical system • Developed for • Entire curriculum • Specific course • Workshop • Conference • Unit of study • presentation • First: main or key topics identified • Second: Sub-concepts under main concepts • “Scope” used to denote what subject matter topics are to be covered • Concepts organized in a sequence • Concepts often build upon each other
Steps in Developing Conceptual Outline • Brainstorm to generate list of all possible concepts • Base list of input factors and accompanying implications drawn in relation to the learners present • Consider time frame • Eliminate concepts seen as least important…add others proposed by colleagues or learners • Take concepts remaining; organize into logical sequence of concepts
Principles of Curriculum Organization • Use outline format • State concepts clearly and concisely • List sub-concepts below related concept • Provide detail • Work from what learners already know, introduce new material at appropriate pace and learning level • Present simple concepts first • Present concrete before abstract concepts • Take advantage of opportunities to repeat concepts in various aspects of curriculum • Reassess, adjust conceptual outline as needed Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
What is curriculum development and what do curriculum developers do? • Traditionally, curriculum development has been seen as planning for a sustained process of teaching and learning in a formal institutional setting • “Curriculum” comes from Latin word for race course • The “curriculum” can be likened to a race (or, better, obstacle) course through a given terrain of human endeavor • The assumptions usually are: • Time is too short to allow for learner self-direction • The real world is too messy a place for learners and other immature people • Messy reality needs to be “translated” into schemas and logical orderings (subject matter) so immature minds can grasp it quickly and avoid wasting time, materials, or injuring the learner or others
What is curriculum development and what do curriculum developers do? • Curriculum development always involves: • Assumptions about the nature of learners (and teachers) • Assumptions about the purposes of schools • Assumptions about what kind of knowledge is important • Assumptions about what kind of world we live in • Assumptions about what kind of world we want to live in • (Different curriculums and different schools are more or less likely to reveal these assumptions)
What are some philosophical questions that come up in curriculum development? • Should children be coddled or pushed? • How important is it to achieve uniformity of behavior or belief? • Should individual differences be exalted or denied? • Should students be able to choose what they learn? • Should schools seek to change (improve) society or sustain it? • Should tolerance and understanding outweigh nationalism and distrust? (What is the school’s role in this?) • Should everything that is learned have practical or economic value? • Should schools seek to further parental goals or goals defined outside the family? • What are the relative values of reading, writing, figuring, playing, working, sweating, debating, talking, listening, agreeing, disagreeing, relaxing, persisting, resisting, conforming, participating, expressing, creating, problem-solving, thinking, experimenting?
Eight Common Curriculum Design 1. Content-based instruction purpose: knowledge, acquisition activity: facts, data, and representative form 2. Shell Based Instruction purpose: process and manipulation activity: practice, ordering application 3. Inquiry Approach purpose: awareness, interest activity: unknown, sampling 4. Conceptual Learning purpose: understanding activity: big ideas, familiarity
Eight Common Curriculum Design 5. Interdisciplinary Learning purpose: making connection activity: application 6. Cooperative Learning purpose: coordinating social skills activity: group work 7. Problem Solving purpose: apply skills activity: current events 8. Critical and Creative Thinking purpose: construction of new forms activity: model building, imagination
Planning • Plans are like road maps • Move learners forward toward important goals---improve quality of their lives • Goals derived from input factors • Curriculum selection • Select portions of other available curricula • Add new material • Rework portions • Shape new, up-to-date curriculum
Planning • Involves multiple levels • Block plans for entire year, long-term program, or conference • Unit plan for respective topics within block plan • Daily lesson, session, or workshop plan • Plans • Concepts • Generalizations • Objectives • Learning experiences • Resources • Assessment techniques
Assessment • Gather of information to determine • Teacher success • Learner success • Curriculum material success • Process involves honest appraisal of both strengths and weaknesses of • Program • Progress as an educator • Product—learners’ knowledge
Assessment Sources • Testing procedures • Informal non-testing • Conversations/input from • Advisory board members • Parents/guardians • Administrators • Supervisors • Former students • Current learners • Employers • Business leaders • Other educators
Using Feedback • Once feedback is received…determination of what went well and what needs improvement is next • Information discovered goes back into the curriculum development process • Educating is a process of continual change
Drawing Implications Planning Implementing the Plan Assessing Steps in Curriculum Development Process Gathering Data from Input Factors Learners Subject-Matter Trends Resources Societal Trends Community Characteristics Educational Psychology Philosophies Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003 Using Feedback