chapter 1 ten themes in the study of life
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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life. Hierarchy of Organization. Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism. Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere Ecosphere. Emergent Properties. Order – tendency to self organize Reproduction – biogenesis

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hierarchy of organization
Hierarchy of Organization
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Systems
  • Organism
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biome
  • Biosphere
  • Ecosphere
emergent properties
Emergent Properties
  • Order – tendency to self organize
  • Reproduction – biogenesis
  • Growth and development
  • Energy utilization
  • Response to the environment
  • Homeostasis – self regulation
  • Evolutionary adaptation
With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

how do we seek understanding
How do we seek understanding?
  • Reductionism – reducing complex systems to simpler components
  • Holism – Study the entire system to truly understand it
the cell theory
The Cell Theory
  • 1. All living things are composed of cells
  • 2. All cells come from other cells
  • 3. Cells are the units of structure and function
two major kinds of cells
Two Major Kinds of Cells
  • Prokaryotic – first cell
  • Eukaryotic – true cell
dna basics
DNA Basics
  • DNA is the substance of genes
  • Double helix
  • 4 Bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
  • Self-replicating molecule
  • Changes over time
  • All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code
organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments
Organisms Are Open Systems That Interact Continuously With Their Environments.
  • Living things both alter and are changed by their environment
  • Materials are recycled
  • Energy is lost as heat and not recycled
living systems are regulated

Living Systems Are Regulated

Many Biological Processes Are Self -Regulating Through “Feedback” Mechanisms

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

evolution unity and diversity

Evolution, Unity, And Diversity

The Evolutionary Connections Among All Organisms Explain the Unity and Diversity of Life.

  • Observation #1– Individual variation
  • Observation #2 – Struggle for existence
  • Inference – Differential reproductive success or “Natural Selection”

Natural Selection Is An Editing Process

the process of science

The Process Of Science

“Science Is A Way Of Knowing”

idealized scientific method
Idealized Scientific Method

Inductive Reasoning

hypothetico deductive reasoning
Hypothetico-deductive Reasoning

“If…then” Logic

theories have broad explanatory power
Theories Have Broad Explanatory Power

Theories Are Comprehensive