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Adolescent Engagement in Content Literacy. John T. Guthrie University of Maryland State of Massachusetts Leadership Series May 2009. Causes of Reading Problems in Grades 4 -12 Decreased motivation to read Inadequate opportunities to develop vocabulary, content knowledge

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Adolescent engagement in content literacy

Adolescent Engagement in Content Literacy

John T. Guthrie

University of Maryland

State of Massachusetts Leadership Series

May 2009


Adolescent engagement in content literacy 1329263

Causes of Reading Problems

in Grades 4 -12

Decreased motivation to read

Inadequate opportunities to develop vocabulary, content knowledge

Lack of access to comprehension instruction

More…


Adolescent engagement in content literacy 1329263

National Governors’ Association’s Best Practices

1. focuson adolescent literacy

2. literacy expectations all grade

3. district literacy plans

4. adolescent literacy instruction

5. measure progress in literacy


Rationale techniques how to
Rationale: Techniques “How to”

  • Reading Next—

    • Carnegie Foundation and Alliance for Excellence

    • 1 million downloads

  • Keys in Adolescent Literacy Achievement (15)

    Direct instruction, embedded in content,motivation, and self-directed learning,collaborative learning, strategic tutoring, diverse texts, intensive writing, technology, formative assessment, time for literacy, professional development, summative assessment, teacher teams, leadership, coordinated program


Overview of adolescent engagement in content literacy
Overview of Adolescent Engagement in Content Literacy

  • Achievement is driven by amount of reading

  • Amount of reading (achievement) is linked to profiles of motivations (dedication, interest, valuing, self-efficacy)

  • Classroom practices foster reading motivation, amount of reading, & achievement (success, relevance, choice, collaboration, thematic units)

  • Professional development enables teachers to implement engagement support


Amount of school reading correlates with achievement
Amount of School Reading Correlates with Achievement

  • Research—260 middle school students; interviewed 2 times, 30 min. each, 9000 pages of transcript

  • Textbook

  • Other books

  • Web sites

  • Own notes

  • Teachers’ notes (board)

  • Teachers’ handouts



In words
In Words, with Achievement

  • Amount of school reading benefits all students.

  • Amount of reading in school matters more to African American students than to Caucasian students.

    BUT, low-achieving African American students read less in school than low-achieving Caucasian students.

    (Note—high achieving students from the two ethnic groups read equal amounts in school.)

  • What is your conclusion?


Overview of adolescent engagement in content literacy1
Overview of with AchievementAdolescent Engagement in Content Literacy

  • Achievement is driven by amount of reading

  • Amount of reading (achievement) is linked to profiles of motivations (dedication, interest, valuing, self-efficacy)

  • Classroom practices foster reading motivation, amount of reading, & achievement (success, relevance, choice, collaboration, thematic units)

  • Professional development enables teachers to implement engagement support


Kaelyn s story
Kaelyn’s with Achievement Story

  • 13 years old—7th grade

  • Attached to her phone—any phone

  • Loathes her braces—3 months to go!

  • Flew through elementary school--memorizing

  • Answers more teacher questions than anyone

  • Never misses homework

  • Prides self on being the best student

  • Gifted in basketball, soccer, and gymnastics

  • Facebook: “I don’t like to read.”

  • DEDICATED AND DISINTERESTED


Motivations for content reading in school
Motivations for Content Reading with Achievementin School

  • Interest

  • Avoidance

  • Self-efficacy

  • Perceived difficulty

  • Valuing

  • De-valuing

  • Peer acceptance

  • Peer rejection


Motivations for content reading in school1
Motivations for Content Reading with Achievementin School

  • Interest

  • Avoidance

  • Self-efficacy

  • Perceived difficulty

  • Valuing

  • De-valuing

  • Peer acceptance

  • Peer rejection


Avoidance
Avoidance with Achievement


Avoidance1
Avoidance with Achievement


Avoidance2
Avoidance with Achievement


Avoidance3
Avoidance with Achievement


Dedication and avoidance motivational sources
Dedication and Avoidance: with AchievementMotivational Sources

Avoidance

Dedication

Valuing .56

Self-efficacy .17

Peer accept. .10

De-valuing

Perceived difficulty

Peer rejection


Cecilia what is best about learning at whitney
Cecilia: with AchievementWhat is best about learning at Whitney?

  • Basically all the academic courses in themselves? Unimportant. They won’t stick with you the rest of your life. What is the most important is the discipline you have to learn when your teachers force you to do this assignment or read that book; it’s the fact that you had to do it that will be most important in college because when your Mom and Dad are not there, you will have to lock and chain yourself to the work.


Effects of motivations on achievement
Effects of Motivations on Achievement with Achievement

Interest

Dedication

High –Dedicated

Commitment to reading

Very likely to achieve

Low– Avoidant

Does not read

Cannot achieve

  • High—Interested

    • May read a lot

    • May achieve highly

  • Low—Disinterested

    • May read under coercion

    • May achieve moderately







Implications of motivation profiles for instruction
Implications of Motivation Profiles with Achievementfor Instruction


Overview of adolescent engagement in content literacy2
Overview of with AchievementAdolescent Engagement in Content Literacy

  • Achievement is driven by amount of reading

  • Amount of reading (achievement) is linked to profiles of motivations (dedication, interest)

  • Classroom practices foster reading motivation, amount of reading, & achievement (success, relevance, choice, collaboration, thematic units)

  • Professional development enables teachers to implement engagement support


Motivational development
Motivational Development with Achievement

INTRINSIC Interest/enjoyment

IDENTIFIED Dedicated with effort

INTROJECTED Accept with reluctance

EXTERNAL Reward/Punishment


Motivations and teaching practices fostering dedication and interest
Motivations and Teaching Practices Fostering Dedication and Interest

  • Self-efficacy

    (belief in capacity)

  • Ownership

    (autonomy)

  • Value

    (importance)

  • Social interaction

    (peers and teacher)

  • Mastery goals

    (deep knowledge)

  • Success

  • Choice

  • Relevance

  • Collaboration

  • Thematic Units


Goals of cori extended engagement in reading
Goals of CORI: InterestExtended Engagement in Reading

  • Engagement is the fusion of knowledge, strategies, internal motivations, and social interactions in reading.

  • Extended refers to time, opportunity, participation in book-based literacy.


Motivational and cognitive ingredients in content literacy grade 7
Motivational and Cognitive Ingredients Interestin Content Literacy - Grade 7

Percent of Variance Explained

  • Poverty-(FARMS) 9 %

  • Motivations (4) 14%

  • Fluency 16%

  • Inferencing 13%

  • Paragraph Comprehension 13%

  • Total .65 R = .81


Overview of content reading cori practices for engagement
Overview of Content Reading Interest(CORI) Practices for Engagement

  • Increase content reading motivation through

    • Success, Thematic units

    • Choices, Relevance

    • Collaboration, Teacher relationships

  • Increase content reading skills through

    • Direct instruction in

      inferring, summarizing, concept mapping

    • Assuring high volume of engaged reading


Five motivational practices success
Five Motivational Practices: InterestSuccess

  • Text matched to students’ reading levels

  • Frequent feedback for reading

  • Authentic reading merged with skills

  • Multiple opportunities for reading

  • Sharing competency with peers

  • Integrating language arts—successfully

  • Student goal setting

  • Rewarding effort (passing short assessments)

  • Rewarding resilience (effort with raised bar)


Non success
Non-Success Interest

  • Text seldom matched to students’ reading levels

  • Little feedback for reading

  • Skills with no authenticity

  • Rapid pacing across content

  • Individual tasks preclude sharing expertise

  • Teacher goal setting; not student goal setting

  • Rewarding achievement over effort


Five motivational practices thematic reading
Five Motivational Practices: InterestThematic Reading

  • Instructional units have conceptual complexity and duration

  • Students learn “big ideas” of survival, discovery, conflict

  • Reading topic persists over days and weeks

  • Students write concept maps of pages, chapters, books, unit

  • Themes are substantive and fun

  • Students become experts on theme


Non thematic units
Non-Thematic Units Interest

  • Instructional units and text topics are fragmented and disconnected

  • Students learn facts of separate texts

  • Reading topic changes daily

  • Students retell pages or sections

  • Themes are brief, fun, and on their own

  • Students attempt to learn reading strategies


Five motivational practices choice
Five Motivational Practices: InterestChoice

Teacher affords student selection of text, task, partner, expression, link.

  • Select story

  • Select page to read

  • Select sentences to explain

  • Choose 3 of 5 questions to answer

  • Choose one character to portray

  • Choose one plot event to show its roles

  • Do large, guided projects


Choice in instruction
Choice in Instruction Interest

  • Grade 12—exam—Tom Stoppard’s play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

  • Two equal assessments brainstormed (20 min.)

  • Poster—characters, quotes, 2 scenes, Theater of the Absurd, list of vocabulary

  • Exam—5 T/F questions, 5 MC questions, 3 essay questions

  • Ss showed higher commitment, enthusiasm


Non choice
Non-Choice Interest

Teacher strongly controls text, task, partner, expression, link to outside.

  • Teacher selects all text

  • Teacher questions are only questions

  • Student predicts—only on request

  • Teacher starts, stops all reading

  • Text is right; student opinion is not

  • Best answers are right or wrong


Five motivational practices relevance
Five Motivational Practices: InterestRelevance

Instruction and text relate closely to students’ experience and knowledge

  • Link hands-on activity to text

  • Raise background knowledge

  • Find text (page) that interests you

  • You connect 2 sentences & explain

  • Find character’s trait like you

  • Science video—hailstorm; waggle dance

  • Video of historical context for literature


Non relevance
Non-Relevance Interest

Instruction and text do not relate closely to students’ experience and knowledge

  • Three topics in one lesson—

    octopus, lost girl, plane

  • Central character is remote

  • Links to background are absent (Odyssey)

  • Nothing to do with me

  • History is past (Holocaust)


Philosophy of bridging
Philosophy of Bridging Interest

  • Teaching philosophy:

    I wanted my students to realize that each and everyone of them had an odyssey of their own, their own kind of journey, and so I wanted to make every single lesson relevant to what they already knew, and to create some kind of bridge to validate who they were and where they came from.


Five motivational practices collaboration
Five Motivational Practices: InterestCollaboration

Students work together to gain meaning from text, and share

  • Partners read aloud

  • Partner question exchange

  • Team summarize chapter

  • Literature circles

  • Collaborative reasoning (CORI)

  • Jig saw—habitat teams

  • Peer editing


Non collaboration
Non-Collaboration Interest

  • Students read independently to gain meaning from text

  • Students read aloud solo

  • Individuals write questions

  • Students summarize chapter alone

  • Individuals choose story to read

  • Assessments are teacher-made and student- answered

  • Individuals complete worksheets


Teacher relationships
Teacher Relationships Interest

Student perceptions of:

  • Respect

  • Importance

  • Clear goals

  • Knows how to help me

  • Caring


Where does dedication avoidance come from research base
Where Does DEDICATION (Avoidance) InterestCome From ? Research Base ?

  • DEDICATION

    • doing reading;

    • believing in effort;

    • identifying as a student.

  • Parental models; expectations for success

  • Classroom experiences of:

    Success, Choice, Relevance, Collaboration

  • Interviewed 260 students on reading in Science and Reading/Language arts.


Adolescent engagement in content literacy 1329263

Correlations of Dedication with Classroom Experiences Interest

in Science and Reading/LA: Interviews - 260


Success promotes dedication failure creates avoidance
Success Promotes Dedication, InterestFailure Creates Avoidance


Overview of adolescent engagement in content literacy3
Overview of InterestAdolescent Engagement in Content Literacy

  • Achievement is driven by amount of reading

  • Amount of reading (achievement) is linked to profiles of motivations (dedication, interest, valuing, self-efficacy)

  • Classroom practices foster reading motivation, amount of reading, & achievement (success, relevance, choice, collaboration, thematic units)

  • Professional development enables teachers to implement engagement support


Teacher professional development
Teacher Professional Development Interest

  • Understanding framework for engagement

    (Motivations and practices)

  • Experiencing practices

    (Choice, relevance, etc.)

  • Using Teacher’s Guide for CORI

    (2 weeks)

  • Planning a Unit

    (Guided design CORI Units for classroom/curriculum)


Next steps for teachers engaging adolescents in reading chapter 9
Next Steps for Teachers— InterestEngaging Adolescents in Reading - Chapter 9

Five Engagement Practices:

  • Short-term change

  • Long-term change

  • Needs assessment questionnaires

  • Curriculum evaluation rubric


Next steps for teachers chapter 9
Next Steps for Teachers - Chapter 9 Interest

Five Engagement Practices: Short-Term Change

  • Do I do this already?

  • How often do I do this?

  • When do I do this?

  • How well does it work?

  • How can I do this more?

  • How can I do this better?

  • How can I connect this to my teaching more deeply?


Cecilia what i would never change
Cecilia: What I Would Never Change Interest

  • In Whitney, people were interested in who I was. They showed me I wasn’t worthless, and showed me that it’s possible to trust unconditionally. Whitney gave me something that nowhere else has truly given me: acceptance.