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Three Primary Pork Industry Organizations. National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) National Pork Board (NPB) U.S. Meat Export Federation (USMEF). National Pork Producers Council . National Swine Growers Council - voluntary organization organized in mid 1950s

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three primary pork industry organizations
Three Primary Pork Industry Organizations
  • National Pork Producers Council (NPPC)
  • National Pork Board (NPB)
  • U.S. Meat Export Federation (USMEF)
national pork producers council
National Pork Producers Council
  • National Swine Growers Council - voluntary organization organized in mid 1950s
  • Name changed to National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) in 1964
  • Voluntary market deduction - checkoff
  • 1966 NHF articles - “Blueprint for Decision”
  • 1968 - 16 state associations organized
  • “Nickels for Profit” - nationwide checkoff program
national pork producers council1
National Pork Producers Council
  • Largest commodity organization in the U.S.
  • 44 state associations - 85,000 members
  • Producer-run organization - grassroots involvement
  • Headquartered in Des Moines, IA
  • Branch office in Washington, D.C.
national pork board npb
National Pork Board (NPB)
  • 15 members appointed by Secretary of Agriculture
  • Set national checkoff rate and determine % of funds returned to state producer organizations
  • Collect, distribute, and account for all checkoff funds
  • Develop budgets, award contracts, evaluate all checkoff-funded programs
national legislative pork checkoff
National Legislative Pork Checkoff
  • Approved by Congress in December 1985
  • Purpose is to provide funds for pork promotion, research, consumer information
  • All producers and importers of pork products contribute portion of sales
  • Current checkoff rate is 0.45% of value
  • Referendum vote - September 2000
  • Mandatory checkoff was defeated
u s meat export federation usmef
U.S. Meat Export Federation (USMEF)
  • Works with nation’s meat and livestock industry to identify and develop overseas markets for U.S. beef, pork, and lamb
  • Based in Denver, Colorado
  • International offices - Tokyo, Singapore, Hamburg, Hong Kong, Taipei, Osaka, Mexico City, Shanghai, Seoul, Moscow, Beirut
  • Works to increase meat exports by creating visibility of demand for U.S. meat products
national swine improvement federation nsif
National Swine Improvement Federation (NSIF)
  • National testing organization - 35 years
  • Representatives of all facets of the industry - producers, universities, seedstock companies
  • Guidelines for Uniform Swine Improvement Programs
  • Real-time ultrasound certification
purpose of nsif
Purpose of NSIF
  • Uniform testing procedures
  • Develop individual testing programs
  • Cooperation among segments of the industry
  • Education programs for the industry
  • Confidence in performance testing
history where have we been
History -- Where have we been?

1950s -- Fat-Type Hog

1960s -- Meat-Type Hog

1970s -- Large Framed,

Flat Muscled Hog

1980s -- Wide Bodied, Fast

Growing Hog

1990s -- Lean-Type Hog

2000s -- Lean-Type Hog with

Quality Emphasis????

early attempts to evaluate genetics 1950s 1960s
Early Attempts to Evaluate Genetics -- 1950s-1960s
  • Live animal shows - carcass contests
  • Meat type hog standards
  • Certification program - PR litters - Certified Meat Sires
  • Backfat probe
  • Central testing stations
  • Genetically correlated problems with selection for meat type hogs
certification standards 1953
Certification Standards -- 1953
  • Must meet P.R. requirements - 8 pigs weaned
    • Litter weight at 56 days (Sows - 320#, Gilts - 275#)
  • Weigh 200 lbs. In 180 days
  • Weigh between 180 – 230 lbs. At slaughter
  • Three weight categories

Live weight Length Backfat Loineye

180 – 199 28.5 – 31.5 1.1 – 1.6 3.50

200 – 214 29.0 – 32.0 1.2 – 1.7 3.75

215 – 230 29.5 – 32.5 1.3 – 1.8 4.00

seedstock production 1960s 1970s
Seedstock Production: 1960s -1970s
  • Seedstock industry dominated by purebred breeders
    • Each farm had only one breed
    • Individual breed identity
    • Few crossbreds sold
    • Production sales
    • Shows and carcass contests
    • Central testing stations
pork production 1960s 1970s
Pork Production: 1960s - 1970s
  • Large number of small diversified operations
  • Rotational crossbreeding systems
  • Most time spent breeding sows, grinding feed, loading hogs, etc.
  • Numerous packer buying stations
  • Little grade and yield, contracting
  • Little attention to meat quality
  • Seedstock industry dominated by purebred breeders
industry transition 1980s 1990s
Industry Transition: 1980s - 1990s
  • Larger and fewer production units
  • Intensive management - specialization
  • Terminal crossbreeding systems
  • Technology - AI, SEW, nutrition, etc.
  • Plant delivery of hogs
  • Corporate breeding companies
  • On farm testing - BLUP technology
  • Environmental concerns
  • Production shift away from Cornbelt
industry in 2010
Industry in 2010
  • Continued
    • consolidation of production systems
    • Vertical integration and coordination
    • Lower profit margins
      • Especially throughout 2008 – 2009
        • Loss of producer equity
  • Consumer-driven industry
    • Continued focus on consumer food demand
    • Increased interest in consumer interest in animal welfare and environment
      • Emergence of welfare and environmentally based marketing of pork to producers.
      • More organic, antibiotic free, etc. programs because consumers want them
industry in 20101
Industry in 2010
  • Emphasis on feed efficiency and growth rate
    • Importance of throughput in grow – finish
  • Continued move to wean - to – finish for grow – finish facilities
  • Continued emphasis on lean
  • Focus on carcass size ultimately impacting primal cut size
    • Improves throughput of the packing secgtor
  • Emphasis on meat and eating quality
  • Supply of genetics dominated by breeding companies
enhancements to genetic evaluation
Enhancements to Genetic Evaluation
  • Computer technology
  • Larger, intensive seedstock

production units

  • Data management systems
  • Artificial insemination - connectedness
  • Real-Time ultrasound - accuracy of evaluation
products of seedstock suppliers
Products of Seedstock Suppliers
  • Genetics - genetic merit of the pigs
  • System - terminal crossbreeding system, specialized lines, etc.
  • Service - recommendations, consultation, records, etc.
structure of the seedstock industry
Structure of the Seedstock Industry
  • Independent seedstock producers
  • Corporate breeding companies
independent seedstock producers
Independent Seedstock Producers
  • Purebred based, most have 2+ breeds
  • Herd size varies, multipliers, networks
  • Purebred & F1 boars, F1 & 3-way cross gilts
  • Extensive on-farm testing - individual records
  • Genetic variation - breed is one large herd through national testing program - STAGES
berkshire
Berkshire
  • One of the oldest breeds

(1823 in the U.S.)

  • Imported from England - counties of Berkshire and Wiltshire
  • American Berkshire Association established in 1875 - first swine registry in the world
  • Original Berkshire - reddish or sandy color - crossed with Siamese and Chinese pigs
berkshires cont
Berkshires, cont.
  • Chester and Delaware counties in PN (near Lancaster County)
  • Dominated market shows in 1940s and 1950s
  • Black with six white points and erect ears
  • Confinement adaptability, aggressive breeders
  • Superior muscle quality
  • Export marketing programs
chester white
Chester White
  • Early 19th century - Chester County, PA
  • Yorkshire and Lincolnshire breeds from UK, Chester breed in NY
  • Several early associations - combined starting 1911
  • Solid white with drooping ears
  • Large litters, mothering ability
  • Little use outside of U.S.
  • Good meat quality
duroc
Duroc
  • First called Duroc-Jersey

(Association established in 1883)

  • Started from Jersey Reds of New Jersey, red Durocs of New York
  • Originally from Spain and Portugal, also Guinea coast of Africa
  • Reddish-brown strain of Berks
duroc cont
Duroc, cont.
  • Influenced by Danish and

Canadian imports

  • Reddish color with drooping ears
  • Fast growth, feed efficiency, rugged, durable
  • Superior muscle quality - intramuscular fat
  • Terminal sire used widely throughout the world
hampshire
Hampshire
  • One of oldest American breeds
  • Boone Co., KY - imported from Hampshire County in England - 1825-1835
  • From “Old English Breed” from Scotland and Saddleback
  • Association established in 1893 - American Thin Rind Association
  • Black with white belt, erect ears
  • Leanness, carcass desirability
landrace
Landrace
  • Descendents of Danish Landrace
  • Imported from Denmark by USDA in 1934, others from Norway and Sweden
  • Association established in 1950, known as bacon type hog
  • Solid white with large, floppy ears - long-bodied
  • Mothering ability, survival rate
poland
Poland
  • Originated from more different

breeds than any other breed of livestock

  • Warren and Butler Counties in Ohio (1800-1850)
  • Wide swings in popularity
  • Black with six white points and drooping ears
  • Meaty carcasses, large loin eyes
spotted
Spotted
  • Descended from original

Poland China in Ohio

  • Developed in Indiana, association established in 1914
  • First known as Spotted Poland China
  • Opened herdbook to Poland China in 1970s and Pietrain in 1990s
  • White with black spots and drooping ears
  • Fast growth rate, aggressive males
yorkshire
Yorkshire
  • Imported from northern

England in York County around 1830

  • Known as Large White in Europe, "Mother breed"
  • Heavily influenced by recent importations from Sweden, England, Canada
  • White with erect ears - long, big frame
  • Have led in use of STAGES program
pietrain
Pietrain
  • From village of Pietrain, Belgium
  • Exported to France and Germany
  • Medium size - white with black spots
  • Shorter legs, stocky, bulging hams
  • Extreme muscle, high lean%
  • Used by breeding companies to increase lean%
  • HAL gene - poor meat quality
usa breeding companies
USA Breeding Companies
  • Trained geneticists
  • Elaborate, large scale testing programs
  • Tightly controlled health program
  • Large scale, national advertisement
  • Large volume suppliers
  • Complete control of germplasm
  • Numerous companies originated in England, Holland, Belgium
babcock genetics
Babcock Genetics
  • First called Midwest Swine, mainly in WI and MN - target small - medium size herds
  • Nucleus herd located in Wisconsin
  • Uses sales staff and contract production herds
  • Closed Herd System – rotaterminal on-site gilt replacement
  • Have eliminated the stress gene - first company to certify breeding stock free of the HAL gene
farmers hybrid
Farmers Hybrid
  • Founded in 1938 as seed corn company
  • Swine breeding company started near Hampton, IA (1941)
  • Purchased by Monsanto in 1969
  • Early history was rotational scheme with synthetic breeds
  • First company to hire Ph.D. geneticist (Dr. Earl Lasley)
  • No longer in business
pic international
PIC International
  • Founded in 1962 by group of

commercial producers in England

  • Purchased by Dalgety corporation
  • Came to U.S. about 25 years ago
  • Original elite herds in Kentucky and Wisconsin
  • Nucleus herd in Oklahoma
pic international1
PIC International
  • Female program based on

Camborough female (LW x Swed. Land.)

  • 27 pure lines at nucleus level
  • Largest company in the world (30+ countries)
  • Licensed for Hal 1843* test
  • Licensed the ESR gene test
  • Several multiplier programs -- AI studs
newsham genetics
Newsham Genetics
  • Initially a merger of Newsham & Segher companies
  • More recently merged with Mosanto Choice Genetics
  • Based in Des Moines, IA. parent company in U.K.
    • Office in St. Louis, MO
  • Started in 1990
  • Balanced terminal and maternal lines
  • Three site production
  • Emphasis on health
  • Gentel selection - stress
newsham choice genetics
Newsham Choice Genetics
  • The Monsanto portion of the company consists of :
    • Formerly Dekalb Swine, started from purchase of Lubbock Swine Breeders in 1970 - now owned by Monsanto
    • Genepacker maternal lines - have added NE Index line
    • EBX terminal sires
    • Meat Quality Initiative
genetipork usa
Genetipork USA
  • U.S. franchise of Genetiporc

Canada (largest seedstock company in Canada)

  • Breton family in Canada (grain & poultry)
  • Originally chosen to supply needs of producers -- Morris Swine Health Center
  • Daughter nucleus herds in MN -- genetic control in Canada
  • Three site production - high health standards
    • Free of PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
    • Free of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
slide44
Based on Danish Pig Breeding Program - linked directly to Danish system
  • Started by Sid Burkey, NE and others
  • Terminal line based on Duroc and Hamp x Duroc cross lines (Danish lines)
  • BoarNet semen distribution network – 1,200 sires in AI centers
  • Maternal line based on Danish Large White and Landrace
nebraska spf
Nebraska SPF
  • Organization of SPF purebred breeders - most located in Nebraska
  • Started in 1959 with 10 herds
  • Whole herd testing -- work done by fieldmen
  • Pro-Elite gilts and terminal boars
  • Waldo Farms is main herd in system
hermitage ngt
Hermitage NGT
  • Merger of two companies
    • National Genetic Technologies
    • Hermitage Pedigree Pigs
  • Hermitage Pedigree Pigs Ltd. In business since 1958.
  • Operating from our base in Kilkenny, Ireland,
  • The Hermitage ‘Maternal Line Program’ focuses on producing our female line.
    • These animals are bred and selected for female line traits.
      • Numbers Born Alive,
      • Feed Intake,
      • Growth Rate,
      • Milking Ability and
      • Weaning to Service Interval.
      • In addition, all our lines are intensively selected for overall conformation (feet, legs, teats, and general body conformation).
hermitage ngt1
Hermitage NGT
  • The Hermitage ‘Terminal Line Program’ focuses on producing our ‘Hylean’ lines.
    • Our ‘Hylean’ indices focus on
      • Growth Rate,
      • Feed Conversion,
      • Feed intake,
      • Lean Meat %,
      • Muscle Depth and Area,
      • Meat Quality and
      • overall body conformation.
fast genetics
Fast Genetics
  • Canadian company based in Saskatchewan
  • Began in 1982 as a family-owned company with Dr. Harold Fast and his wife Marjorie as the sole owners and operators. 
  • Fast Genetics owns 3700 sows in genetic nucleus and multiplication production in Saskatchewan. 
  • In 2001 the Fast family sold part of its interest in the business to Hytek Ltd. of LaBroquerie, Manitoba. 
  • From the onset, Fast Genetics has paid particular attention to the health and vigor of their nucleus herd. 
  • The herd’s origin is from cesarean derived piglets reared on evaporated milk.
  • Maintained outstanding health status with records which indicate an absence of  the major health concerns since 1982.
  • Fast Genetics' nucleus herds, located in northern Saskatchewan, continue to maintain closed herds in isolation from other intensive hog production units.  The
national swine registry
National Swine Registry
  • Located in West Lafayette, IN
  • Formed by Duroc, Hampshire, and Yorkshire breeds in 1994
  • Joined by Landrace in 1998
  • National across-herd sire summaries - performance pedigrees
  • Litter registrations, breed promotion, marketing assistance, educational materials
hypor
Hypor
  • Is a part of Hendrix Genetics
    • European firm
    • Have other breeding activities
      • Pig
      • Broiler
      • Layer
  • Formerly known as Genex
    • Largely known for their Dam Lines
    • Recently purchased Duroc lines
      • Shade Oak
      • Designed Genetics (Paul Reese family)
genesus
Genesus
  • Canadian based company
    • Jim Long CEO
    • Has a widely based blog and weekly newsletter
  • Maintain 3 pure lines
    • Duroc
    • Yorkshire
    • Landrace
    • Claim to be the largest recorder in Canada
    • Many Hutterite colony customers
topigs north america
Topigs North America
  • Daughter company of TOPIGS,
    • Subsidiary of Pigture Group
    • Based in The Netherlands.
  • Four TOPIGS international genetic improvement centers.
    • North American site is in Saskatchewan, Canada
  • TOPIGS North America consists of both nucleus and multiplication units located throughout the continent.
  • Company had its beginnings when a group of purebred breeders organized to form and “act” more like a company
  • Lines are purebred based
    • Yorkshire
    • Landrace
    • Duroc
topigs north america1
Topigs North America
  • Daughter company of TOPIGS,
    • Subsidiary of Pigture Group
    • Based in The Netherlands.
  • Four TOPIGS international genetic improvement centers.
    • North American site is in Saskatchewan, Canada
  • TOPIGS North America consists of both nucleus and multiplication units located throughout the continent.
  • Company had its beginnings when a group of purebred breeders organized to form and “act” more like a company
  • Lines are purebred based
    • Yorkshire
    • Landrace
    • Duroc
topigs north america2
Topigs North America
  • Maintain a research arm called Institute for Pig Genetics
    • Conduct research using the data generated from their business
      • Purebred data
      • Commercial data
other breeding stock entities
Other breeding stock entities
  • Norsvin
    • Based in Norway
    • Just beginning to get business started in Canada and the U.S.
    • Known for their Landrace line
  • PureTek
    • U.S. Purebred breeders forming business
      • Tempel Genetics, Gentryville, IN
      • Whiteshire Hamroc, Albion, IN
      • Cedar Ridge Farms, Red Bud,IL
      • Waldo Farms, DeWitt, NE
      • Shaffer Superior Genetics, Albany, IN
      • Northern Genetic Management, (Dr. Neil DeBuse), MN

*** Firm is responsible for 98% of swine breeding stock exported from the U.S.

other breeding stock entities1
Other breeding stock entities
  • Others
    • Independent purebred breeders
    • Many reasons for the decline of this sector
      • Some are real
      • Some are misconceptions
ai boar studs
AI Boar Studs
  • Swine Genetics International (SGI), IA
  • International Boar Semen (IBS), IA
  • United Swine Genetics, IL
  • Top Cut Sires, OH
  • Lean Value Sires, OH
  • Highpoint Swine Genetics, IL
  • Prairie States Semen Supply, IL
  • Regional Commercial Studs
porcine stress syndrome pss
Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS)
  • Malignant hyperthermia - increase in body temperature, muscle rigidity, increase in metabolism, sudden death
  • Triggered by minor stress - loading, mixing, transport, high temperatures
  • Rapid decline in pH after slaughter - results in PSE pork
  • Single point mutation (C to T) at nucleotide 1843 on chromosome 6
inheritance of pss
Inheritance of PSS
  • Single recessive gene (Christian - early 1970s)
  • First identification - visual appraisal
  • Halothane gas screening
  • Measurement of blood enzyme creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
  • Blood typing
  • DNA test - Fujii et al. (1991)
abnormalities inherited disorders
Abnormalities - Inherited Disorders
  • Due to a single gene
  • Combined action of many genes and the environment
  • May run in families but inconclusive whether due to one or many genes
  • Recessive or dominant
  • Molecular genetics may help to identify
  • Evaluate economic importance and frequency of disorder
disorders and or traits
Disorders and/or Traits
  • Osteochondrosis - abnormal differentiation of growth cartilage - runs in families
  • Arthritis - joint inflammation - low h2 -more common in some families or lines
  • Shaker pig syndrome - tremors of head and legs - various causes and not fully known
  • Splay legs - rear legs on newborn pigs spread apart - genetics, viral infection, nutrition
disorders and or traits1
Disorders and/or Traits
  • Cryptorchidism - one or both testes retained in abdomen - at least two gene pairs
  • Scrotal hernia - intestines come down through inguinal canal into scrotum - two pairs of recessive genes
  • Umbilical hernia - part of intestine through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus - occurs in families, infections?
  • Inverted nipples - more common in anterior region - several genes - h2 approx. 20%
nppc pork challenge
NPPC Pork Challenge
  • Started at World Pork Expo in 1988, three tests
  • Used central test facility to compare industry breeding programs - “system” philosophy
  • Benchmark of market hog performance
  • Breed/sire line progeny test results
  • First large test that measured quality traits and potential consumer acceptance
  • 2,416 pigs in 303 entry groups
national barrow show progeny test
National Barrow Show Progeny Test
  • Sponsored by Hormel Foods Corp.
  • Sire progeny test - 8 pigs/sire
  • Tested at New Hampton Testing Station and Minnesota Testing Station
  • Over 4,000 pigs tested
  • Performance and muscle quality evaluation
  • Breed differences for quality traits
national genetic evaluation program ngep
National Genetic Evaluation Program (NGEP)
  • Provide unbiased, highly accurate sire line data for numerous traits never before evaluated, and to compare seedstock populations for crossbreeding use.
national genetic evaluation program
National Genetic Evaluation Program
  • Conducted by NPPC
  • Results released in 1995
  • Terminal sire line comparison for 40 traits
  • Heritabilities and genetic correlations among all traits
  • Effect of HAL gene on all traits
  • Consumer preference study
  • “Spin-off” benefits - SEW, AI
features of ngep
Features of NGEP
  • Cooperating commercial producers
  • 40 production and quality traits
  • 9 sire lines completed program
  • 795 sires collected
  • 9,000 doses of semen
  • 1,780 litters tested
  • 3,261 pigs tested
maternal line genetic evaluation program
Maternal Line Genetic Evaluation Program
  • Conducted by NPPC
  • Started in 1997, results released in 2000
  • Six maternal lines evaluated
  • Evaluated lifetime reproductive performance of maternal genetic lines through 4 parities
  • Evaluated maternal contribution to progeny performance
quality lean growth modeling project
Quality Lean Growth Modeling Project
  • 6 genetic lines, 4 diets, 3 endpoint weights
  • 1600 pigs, 3 test groups
  • Feed intake, growth curves, lean:fat deposition rates using RTU
  • Ham, loin, belly quality
  • Carcass separation data used for Fat-Free Lean Prediction Equations
  • Two symposiums held to present results
genetics of quality lean efficiency project
Genetics of Quality Lean Efficiency Project
  • Started in July 1999
  • SEW pigs at Minnesota Swine Testing Station
  • Two reps, 500 head each
  • Purebred Yorkshires and Durocs
  • Individual feed intake and efficiency
  • Serial scans for intramuscular fat
  • Carcass dissection work
stages swine testing and genetic evaluation system
STAGES -- Swine Testing And Genetic Evaluation System
  • Initiated in “stages”
  • Multi-trait animal model
  • Daily across-herd EPDs on association computer
  • Across-herd summaries published semi-annually
  • Breed specific variance components and adjustments
  • www.ansc.purdue.edu/stages/
structure of the swine industry
Structure of the Swine Industry

Nucleus

Multiplier

Commercial

sources of replacement females
Sources of Replacement Females
  • Purchase
    • Supplier is responsible for genetic improvement program
    • Substitute capital for management
  • Raising your own seedstock
    • You are responsible for genetic improvement
    • Substitute labor and management for capital
sources of replacement females1
Sources of Replacement Females
  • Purchase -- must fit your system and environment
  • Gilt multiplication systems
    • Grandparent or great-grandparent
    • Rotaterminal system
    • AI is important tool to access superior maternal genetics
terminal cross industry standard
Terminal Cross -- Industry Standard
  • Larger units -- within-herd gilt replacement
  • Larger seedstock suppliers and networks
  • High herd health advancements
  • Highly selected AI sires
terminal crossbreeding system
Terminal Crossbreeding System
  • Heterosis is maximized
  • Greater product consistency
  • Easier to implement and manage
  • Allows best use of specialized sire and dam lines
  • Repeated use of superior terminal sires
terminal crossbred female
Terminal Crossbred Female
  • Goal is to maximize reproduction
  • Maximize heterosis -- crossbred females
  • Maternal traits -- low h2, respond to crossbreeding
  • Contributes half of genes for growth and composition to the offspring
  • Consider facilities and environment
    • Outdoor/large groups -- 25-50% color
    • Inside/crated/small groups -- 0-25% color
within herd multiplication systems
Within-Herd Multiplication Systems
  • Lower health risks
  • Potential cost savings
  • More control of your genetics
  • Requires more management to be successful
  • Reduces terminal production
  • AI improves efficiency of system
  • Computer tools aid in implementation
traditional genetic pyramid

Nucleus

Multiplier

Traditional Genetic Pyramid

200 York sows x York boars --> Yorkshire animals

50 Land sows x Land boars ---> Landrace boars

50 Duroc sows x Duroc boars --> Terminal boars

1200 York sows x Land boars ==> LY parent stock

Parent

8500 LY sows x Duroc boars ==> market hogs

within herd grandparent program
Within-Herd Grandparent Program

Line A

Line B

X

15% of herd

Line C

AxB Female

85% of herd

X

Market Hogs

within herd great grandparent program
Within-Herd Great-Grandparent Program

Hampshire

Landrace

X

2.5% of herd

Hamp x Landrace

Yorkshire

X

15% of herd

3-Way Cross

Duroc

82.5% of herd

X

Market Hogs

rotaterminal crossbreeding system 2 breed

Breed A

Terminal

Boars

Crossbred

females

Crossbred

females

Breed B

Crossbred

females

Rotaterminal Crossbreeding System(2 Breed)

15% of herd

85% of herd

All pigs

go to

market

rotaterminal crossbreeding system 3 breed

Crossbred

females

Crossbred

females

Crossbred

females

Rotaterminal Crossbreeding System(3 Breed)

15% of herd

85% of herd

Breed A

Terminal

Boars

All pigs

go to

market

Breed B

Crossbred

females

Breed C

rotaterminal crossbreeding system

Other Females (85%)

Best Females (15%)

Maternal Sires

Terminal Sires

Pigs

Barrows

Rotaterminal Crossbreeding System

Home-raised Females

Replacement Gilts

Slaughter

advantages of rotaterminal system
Advantages of Rotaterminal System
  • Can purchase startup females once
  • Reduced health risk
  • Suitable for AI
  • Maternal heterosis is 86% (3-breed maternal cross)
  • 100% heterosis in market pig
  • Use of indigenous breeds is possible
    • Adaptability –heat tolerant
    • Disease resistance
genetic importation considerations
Genetic Importation Considerations
  • Identify the populations (breeds), herds, and individuals that will improve the traits of interest.
  • Use Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System (STAGES) data
    • Do not require the top 1% of animals to improve your herd
take home messages
Take Home Messages
  • The genetic system and improvement will dictate the operation maximum production trait performance
  • Heterosis should be maximized
  • Which Mating System is Best?
    • Management ability
    • Herd size
    • Availability of replacements
    • Genetic cost, extra facility capital outlay, seedstock purchase expense
    • Best does not always equal optimal nor feasible