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Reproductive Technologies. by John Luo 9SC1. What are Reproductive Technologies?. A reproductive technology is a generic term used to refer to any technology that is or will be utilised in some way in reproduction of animals and humans.

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what are reproductive technologies
What are Reproductive Technologies?
  • A reproductive technology is a generic term used to refer to any technology that is or will be utilised in some way in reproduction of animals and humans.
  • Most reproductive technologies are categorised as Assistive Reproductive Technology, which refer to artificial methods of achieving pregnancy.
examples of reproductive technologies
Examples of Reproductive Technologies

Examples of assistive reproductive technologies include:

  • IVF (in vitro fertilisation)
  • Cloning
  • Fertility medication
in vitro fertilisation
In Vitro Fertilisation
  • In Vitro Fertilisation, commonly known as IVF, is the process in which both sex cells are removed from the body and fertilised outside of the human body, generally in a fluid-filled petri dish.
  • The name In Vitro Fertilisation comes from the Latin in vitro, meaning in glass.
in vitro fertilisation method i
In Vitro Fertilisation – Method I
  • Firstly, the woman’s ovaries are stimulated to mature many eggs at once, generally by using the hormone FSH.
  • After the multiple eggs have ovulated, they are retrieved using a needle.
  • The eggs and sperm are prepared for fertilisation by removal of any surrounding cells and the removal of seminal fluid.
in vitro fertilisation method ii
In Vitro Fertilisation – Method II
  • The eggs and sperm are combined in the prepared fluid and left for approximately 18 hours.
  • Next, suitable embryos are selected and finally, they are inserted into the woman’s uterus.
in vitro fertilisation ethics
In Vitro Fertilisation – Ethics
  • Many people, especially Catholics, are opposed to IVF, believing it violates the laws of life.
  • Religious opposition states that artificial fertilisation is unethical due to the belief that it avoids the purpose of marriage; the creation of a new life through the unity of a man and a woman.
cloning
Cloning
  • Cloning is the process in which a new organism is made using the DNA of another organism.
  • This means that the new organism will be genetically identical to the “parent” organism.
  • Cloning is generally performed using somatic cell nuclear transfer, or SCNT.
cloning method i
Cloning – Method I
  • The nucleus of a cell other than a sperm or egg cell is taken from a cell sample.
  • The nucleus of an egg cell is removed from the egg.
  • The nucleus of the first cell is inserted into the egg cell without a nucleus.
  • The new nucleus will be reprogrammed by the rest of the egg cell and will begin to divide.
cloning method ii
Cloning – Method II
  • When the egg cell has developed sufficiently by itself, it is inserted into a surrogate and will attach to the lining of the uterus.
  • Growth of the foetus will continue as normal.
cloning ethics
Cloning – Ethics
  • Similar to its opposition of IVF, the Catholic Church condemns cloning, as they believe that life starts at conception, which never takes place during the cloning process.
  • The issue of identity also arises in the ethical debate concerning cloning. As a clone is genetically identical to its parent, there may be a lost sense of identity and uniqueness.
  • Due to these ethical concerns, human cloning for reproductive reasons has not been performed and is illegal in many countries of the world.