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Listening to sound patterns as a dynamic activity

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  1. Listening to sound patterns as a dynamic activity By Mari Riess Jones Talk presented at Acoustical Society of America, April 2003

  2. Thanks to Ralph Barnes Sue Holleran Devin McAuley Heather Moynihan Noah MacKenzie Amandine Penel Jennifer Puente Nate Vaughan Special Thanks to Edward Large

  3. Overview • Theoretical background. • Dynamic attending. • Entrainment. • Time judgments • Targeting attending to points in time. • Expectancy profiles. 3. Pitch judgmentsHigher order rhythmic influences.

  4. Theoretical Background 1.

  5. General Assumptions Living things Animate creatures possess internal periodicities that can synchronize. Event time Temporal structure of events is often quasi-periodic. Connecting Event timing affords synchrony, a way for living things to connect with their environment.

  6. Internal Periodicities:Biological Oscillations Many internal periodicities exist; periods of 1 ms, several minutes, years !. Most studied are circadian rhythms; oscillatory periods of ca. 24 hours.

  7. Connecting “How do internal oscillations of an organism connect with event time? “ One answer: By synchronizing. More precisely: By entrainment

  8. Biological Entrainment Pittendrigh & Daan (1976) . Circadian rhythms of 24 hours synchronize to light/dark cycles. Daan et al. (2001) recently updated this two oscillator model.

  9. Example: Two Entraining Oscillations A Winter Day M E A Summer Day M E From Daan et al. J.Biological Rhythms (2001)

  10. Shorter Periods? In species with refined use of fast sound patterns, Can we postulate, internal oscillations with periods less than the circadian period ?

  11. Generalizing….. Other ? Biological Oscillators Most Biological Oscillators Long natural periods Short natural periods Respond to light Respond to sound changes changes

  12. Background:Rhythmic (periodic) Expectancies Quasi-periodicities in Rhythmical sound patterns Induce Periodic expectancies Do expectancies reflect entrainments to brief periods?

  13. Back to Synchrony: Asimple premise When we attend, an internal activity is elicited … that co-occurs with the attended object. This activity involves Internal oscillations (Jones, 1976).

  14. Synchronous Attending to Dynamic Arrays In contrast to static arrays, in dynamic arrays, elements appear, then disappear Time Attending must be synchronized with elements.

  15. Attentional Synchrony to dynamic events • Sustaining attending uniformly in time. • OR 2. By variably allocating attending in time.

  16. Simple Sustained Attending Precludes heightened attending to selected points in time. So, consider how attending varies in time….

  17. Dynamic Attending Postulates that : Selective attending in time is paced by stimulus timing. Attentional focus in time becomes phase-locked to elements.

  18. Attending oscillates in time Resources are periodically distributed as internal oscillations. Inter-onset time interval IOI Time Pulses of attention energy

  19. Formalized as an Oscillator Model : by Ed Large (Large & Jones, 1999) Stimulus IOI Expected point in time Phase Period Periodic Expectancies Stimulus timing paces the oscillator. Oscillator period and phase determine this entrainment .

  20. Formalized as an Oscillator Model : by Ed Large (Large & Jones, 1999) Stimulus IOI Expected point in time Phase Period Periodic Expectancies Stimulus timing paces the oscillator. Oscillator period and phase determine this entrainment .

  21. The adaptive oscillator Tones Period Phase Period and Phase change: They draw attending rhythms to “fit” a time pattern. Period changes Phase changes

  22. A simple dynamical system. The entrained oscillator gravitates to an attractor state of: • 1. Phase Synchrony:A zero time difference between an element onset and a pulse peak. • 2. Period matching:A zero time difference between an IOI and oscillator period.

  23. 2. Time Judgments A few experiments….

  24. Preview: Our Experimental Designs Involve a context rhythm using tones: C Followed by a comparison, C, (of some sort) Time JudgmentComparison IOI Pitch JudgmentComparison tone

  25. Time Judgment TasksRationale If temporal arrays entrain attending, then a rhythmic context should … Shape temporal expectancies Affect time judgments.

  26. Example Study: Judgment Task: Is a comparison time interval “shorter”, “same” or “ longer” ? +/-T Standard IOI Comparison IOI Context IOI “Ignore context IOIs“ Context rhythm should synchronize attending.

  27. Standard Ending Varies: Expected Standard Ending: = 600 ms Unexpected Standard Endings: Early = 579 ms Late = 621 ms Very Early = 524 ms Very Late = 676 ms A comparison IOI is always yoked to standard IOI 23

  28. Modeling Oscillatory Attending Context IOIs STANDARD IOI COMPARISON IOI Expected Ending: “Same” Expected Ending 600 ms 600 Period Phase When a standard ends as expected, the oscillator’s period is accurately preserved ….as a memory of the standard IOI.

  29. The Reason: The Attentional Pulse Expected time Pulse location Pulse location depends on rhythmic context 15

  30. Prediction: A quadratic accuracy Expectancy Profile: Attentional Pulse

  31. Predicted and ObservedExpectancy Profiles (Large & Jones 1999) P < .01

  32. Subsequent Experiments Over a dozen experiments later (e.g., Barnes & Jones, Cognitive Psychology, 2000; McAuley & Jones, JEP: HPP, 2003) • We find, the quadratic expectancy profile: • Vanisheswith no context sequence, but … sharpens with long context sequences. • Persists through a silent gap (2 X the context IOI). • Holds for different rates. • Reveals harmonic scaling of timing.

  33. Different Induction Rates Isochronous sequences Three conditions: different induction rates. Condition Induction IOIs Standard durations 1. 300 ms 300 ms 524, 600, 676 ms 2. 500 ms 500 ms 524, 600, 676 ms 3. 600 ms 600 ms 524, 600, 676 ms This task required same vs different duration judgments

  34. Observed Expectancy Profiles Three Time Judgment Conditions

  35. Conclude: Time Judgments 1. Context timing systematically influences listeners’ time judgments. 2. People are best with expected and worst with very unexpected standards. 3. Ratiosof context IOIs to expected standards: Simple harmonic ratios (1:1; 1:2 ) yield quadratic expectancy profiles.

  36. 3. Pitch Judgments We generalized this dynamic approach to attending to pitch. Does rhythmic context affect pitch judgments?

  37. A Pitch Judgment Task Task: Is a comparison pitch: “same”, “higher”, ”lower” than a standard pitch? “Ignore distracting pitches!” Critical IOI “higher” same” “lower” Standard pitch Comparison pitch Independent Variable: Critical IOI 21

  38. Rationale A rhythmic context paces attending. Pitch judgments will be best for temporally expected tones: When critical IOI = context IOI.

  39. Interpolated Sequences Two kinds of pitch sequences • Semi-random ordering of Chromatic tones. (Jones, Moynihan, Mackenzie & Puente, Psych Science, 2002.). • Structured patterns of Chromatic tones. (Mackenzie & Jones, 2003; Puente & Jones, 2003 in prep)

  40. Similar Predictions Aquadratic expectancy profile Attentional Pulse

  41. Observed Expectancy Profile: Semi-random pitches P<.005

  42. Related Experiments We used irregular context timing: Context IOIs varied (mean IOI = 600 ms). RESULTS: Aflattened expectancy profile (Jones, Moynihan, Mackenzie & Puente, Psych Science, 2002)

  43. Recent findings:Structured (chromatic) sequences Suggest the importance of higher-order rhythms … In focal attending

  44. Focal Attending: Multiple Time Levels In 1989, Marilyn Boltz and I proposed: Focal Attending … In temporally coherent events, selective attending can transpire over higher event time levels. (Jones & Boltz, Psych Rev, 1989)

  45. A Coherently Structured Sound Event Accent Timing Higher time level Accented Tones Lower time level An Accent Rhythm 21

  46. Higher-order Rhythm Varies Regular Irregular Tones with pitch- plus- time accents 21

  47. Same Pitch Judgment Task Critical IOI is Varied Standard pitch Comparison pitch NOTE: Lower order context rhythm (IOIs) is regular. 21

  48. Back to Two Oscillators Remember those two circadian oscillators (Morning, Evening)? Well, these are different! Shorter periods Sensitive to sound

  49. Two Different Oscillators Two oscillators A higher-order oscillator re: Accents. A lower-order oscillator re: Tone onsets. Which dominates? If the accent oscillator dominates, then the Regular Rhythm will yield the more pronounced Expectancy Profile.

  50. PC P<.001 Comparison Onset Time