Narrow Morality Why do some people recognize a higher moral law, while others are simply content to obey rules without question?
Who cares about my stage?! Your stage matters! Problem-solving changes in your 20s-30s Specific educational attempts to influence awareness Behavior is influenced by moral perception and moral judgments Kohlberg cared…
Carefully collected international data • Aboriginal villages in Malaysia • Turkey • Yucatán • Urban areas in the US and Mexico
Women & Kohlberg • Women often scored a full stage below their male counterparts • Women focused on SOLUTIONS THAT PRESERVED CONNECTIONS
What’s going on? • Either women are less morally developed than men OR • Something is wrong with Kohlberg’s framework
In a Different VOICE • Harmony without sameness • Collaborative (not competitive/combative) • Voices are different without excluding one another • A wide vocabulary that has NOTHING to do with right/wrong or true/false
Men’s View of the Self • Autonomy • Freedom • Independence • Separateness • Hierarchy • Rules guide interactions • Roles establish place in hierarchy
Women’s View of the Self • Relatedness • Interdependence • Emotional Connectedness • Responsiveness to needs of others • Web of relationships • Empathy & connectedness guide interactions • Roles are secondary to connections
Men’s Moral Voices • Justice • Rights • Treating everyone fair/the same • Apply rules impartially to everyone • Responsibility towards abstract codes of conduct
Women’s Moral Voices • Care • Responsibility • Caring about everyone's suffering • Preserve emotional connectedness • Responsibility toward real individuals
Umm…who cares? • Different ideas about what to do about these gender-based ways of making decisions
Separate but equal • Men and women have different but equally valuable moral voices • Reinforces stereotypes • Hard to retain “…but equal” part • We have nothing to learn from one another • Devalues those with “non-traditional” moral voices
Superiority Thesis • Women’s moral voices are superior • Exclusionary • Demands that someone be the loser • Inverts traditional claims of male “superiority”
Integrationist Thesis • There is only one moral voice: It’s the same for men and women • No richness or diversity • Assimilationist-everybody needs to fall in line with the powerful majority
Diversity Thesis • There are different moral voices and this is a source of richness and diversity • External: Different sex-based moral voices • Internal: We all have masculine AND feminine moral voices within us • Minimizes gender stereotyping
How does all of this carry over to leadership? • 3 male + 3 female leaders • What industry? • Adjectives to describe them as an individual • Adjectives to describe their moral voice • What you think it’s like to work for them?
Where are we headed? “We need not just a new generation of leadership but a new gender of leadership.” -Bill Clinton Acknowledgement that BOTH male and female voices and leadership styles are necessary for a successful organization!
Next Class • Tokenism & the pay gap