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INNOVATIVE SCHOOL DESIGN FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION Mirjana Božić*, Vesna Milićević-Antonić**, Slavica Nikolić*** *Institute of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia, **Bureau BAJIN, Belgrade, Serbia, *** AIA, New York, USA International symposium on Advanced Technologies in Education, Athens, Greece, January 26-27, 2007.
Designing science laboratory for tomorrow Knowledge about basic natural laws • created and accumulated by greatest scientists through an impressive historical endeavour • students should have the opportunity to repeat their experience and reasoning • such a goal imposes that a wider space than a classroom is necessary. One needs a corridor, a courtyard, a roof, a terrace in order to incorporate devices and elements for mapping natural phenomena and studying them • This can be achieved treating the school building and its environment as a 3D lecture book and Lab
CREATORS AND DEVELOPERS OF THE CONCEPT OF A SCHOOL AS A 3D LECTURE BOOK AND LAB SCIENCE EDUCATORS and SCHOOL DESIGNERS
Deck the Halls columns, The Physics Teacher, 1972-2001 J. Meinke, real science done outdoors, since 1990, New Community Networks (Communities created and developing through the use of Internet)_ PHYSARCH: School Architecture and Physics Education -part of the project WYP2005 Europe, 2003 - International Conference on Physics education and School Design, Belgrade, 2005 Finnish National Board of Education, Conference The school of tomorrow – learning environment, pedagogy and architecture, 2006 Examples from The Cosmic Perspective, by Bennett et. al. (Pearson Addison Wesley, ) SCIENCE EDUCATORS
SCHOOL DESIGNERS DESIGNSHARE – International Forum for Innovative school design, Annual Honnour Awards for school designs, since 2000. P.Nair and R. Fielding, The Language of School Design, 2005. American Arch. Foundation, National Summit on School Design, 2003 School Building Organization S.A., Greece, development of school facilities, 1998- International Students’ Competition, Design ideas for school as a lecture book of physics, organized by the Inst. Phys. and Faculty of Architecture, Belgrade, 2006 Designers of NUS High school for SE, Singapore, 2005 Spielgeraete-Richter, Play stations for developing senses,
COGNITIVE INSTALLATIONS AND PATTERNS proposed and developed by the above mentioned science educators and school designers • PROMOTE • science & scientific methods • rational thinking technique • scientific concepts and ideas • information & and communication necessity • scientific opinion, debate, critique, dialogue, doubts • overcoming of scientific problem and inter-disciplinary dispense • curiosity, motivation and willingness for engagement • energy saving • new aesthetics
COGNITIVE INSTALLATIONS AND PATTERNS • Are applicable to: • Environmental issues • Teaching method and curriculum • Self-education • Meeting the scientists • Approach to IT resources • Research projects • Psycho-social activities
HISTORY Sculptures of artists from Lepenski Vir • Inhabitants of Lepenski Vir on Danube knew 8000 years ago to devide a circle into six equal parts. The remains of their buildings are testimony of their knowledge of geometry. The base of their buildings was a trapeze, cut from an angle of 60 degrees
Home base of inhabitants of Lepenski vir tell us about their knowledge of basic elements of an equilateral triangle and its relation to a circle.
Learning about number pi and basic elements of infinitesimal calculus by imitating architects from Lepenski Vir and Archimedes The meaning of the number pi would be understood and remembered properly for ever if thought by measuring radiuses ri and circumferences Oi of many large concentric circles drawn in a courtyard and by evaluating the ratiosOi/ri. If a corridor and a courtyard of a school would be decorated with a series of circles having inscribed more and more regular polygons, the idea of a limit and its use in infinitesimal calculus would become familiar to very young students.
Retrograde motion of planets may be demonstrated on a school wall with two students moving with appropriate speeds along two concentric circles in a courtyard. J.Bennett at al., the Cosmic Perspective
To repeat Erathostenes measurement of the radius of the Earth, a column in the courtyard is very useful. It is useful for physical geography in general.
TRACKS ALONG STAIRCASE WITH BELLS TO PERFORM FREE FALL EXPERIMENTS IN GALILEO WAY FROM ONE OF EIGHTEEIN WORKS AT THE STUDENT COMPETITIION
This picture from Astronomie, The Modern Perspective suggests in an ideal way how to use school design to teach basic elements of a cone. The sections of a cone are crucial for understanding and memorizing the classification of orbits in the gravitational field.
R. Szostak, Simple hands-on experiments for teaching astronomy, Hands on-Experiments in Physics Education, Proc. ICPE-GIREP International Conference, Duisburg, Germany, 1988, ed. by G. Born, H. Harreis, H. Litschke, N. Treitz (Didaktik der Physik, Duisburg, 1999).
Transparent dome with a diaphragm and a mechanism to record daily and annual path of the Sun.
Observing day - night line on a properly oriented globe. in a Science park of school yard On a globe having the same orientation as the Earth one may observe and determine the position of a day-night line and its motion over the Earth. Chlore Garden of Science, Weizmann Institute of Science,
U.S. Naval ObservatoryAstronomical Applications DepartmentDay and Night Across the Earth on 2004 Oct 10 at 14:39 UT
Max Valier observatory The shadow of the globe axis may be also used to determine approximately the true local time. It is just necessary to draw on the horizontal surface below the globe, the time scale appropriate for the local place.
Traditional equatorial sundail is a simplified form of a globe which simulates Earth's orientation and has an extended axis.It is as a cut off, along the equator and the axis, from a globe which simulates Earth's orientation.
Courtyard tyling Vegetation Amphitheater
Whether recorder at the University of Trondheim Sun rays focused by the sphere record sunny days in Trondheim by burning small areas on a plate behind a sphere.
This would be in just the same way as Malus discovered polarization by contemplating through a calcite crystal light reflected from the windows of the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. The basic phenomena and properties of light were discovered and studied using the Sun as a source of light. A peace of reflecting material on an outside wall of the school building would help teachers to demonstrate polarization under reflection
Filters and mirrors on a window to observe color mixing of sunlight Model for demonstration Simulation using the program 3D studio
Optical illusionsRotating discs Spielgeraete-Richter, Play stations for developing senses
Energy saving Solar roofing
Can you calculate the speed of the water in point A? Can you write an equation for the trajectory? Deck the Halls columns, The Physics Teacher Such a picture on ceramic tiles would inspire students to think about this nice phenomena, its cause and explanation.
Very appropriate device for teaching basic laws of hydrodynamics and to illustrate roots of the quadratic equation First prize at the 2005 Design Award Program of Designsshare
ECHO TUBE Deck the Halls columns, The Physics Teacher
Melodic fence Spielgeraete-Richter, Play stations for developing senses
could be incorporated into school buildings in various ways: as elements of columns as decorations in the corners or along the edges of the rooms on the staircase in the shape of the building on the ceilings, floors, etc. So, students could easily learn about symmetries and how symmetry determines the shapes in nature. The concept of a primitive cell of crystals in nature
NUS High School for Mathematics and Sciences in Singapore Winner at the Design-Share Awards program, 2006 • “Ideas include extracting the dynamic form of a double helixfrom the structure of DNA, and interpreting it into the form of an abstracted ‘nano tube stairway’ at the entry lobby. • The main entrance ‘Periodic Façade’ was designed as an abstract version of the periodic table, with different parts of the elevation relating to different groups of elements. • The ‘Pi Wall’ is derived from the mathematical concept of Pi, and consists of a mosaic of rectangular perforated aluminum panels that are translated into the decimal digits of Pi through a number-coded color system. • The Eco-Learning Trail allows students to learn about natural habitats and natural processes. The aquatic and eco systems, flora and fauna provide students with real life examples, enriching their total learning experience.”
CONCLUSION • Fortunately science educators and architects initiated and cordially carry out innovative school design as well as improvement of learning environment as a whole. • In order to turn these efforts into general practice there are other parties that should necessarily fully cooperate: school administration investors and developers Right example for this is cooperation between School Building Organization S.A. and Government in Greece In Serbia this process is on its way to take pace with Europe.