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RIDE YOUR BICYCLE UPWIND OUR TOXIC ADDICTION TO VEHICLES HAS SHORT-TERM AS WELL AS LONG-TERM EFFECTS March 10, 2008 Municipal Equipment and Operations Association (Ontario). Hamilton, Ontario. Sources B. B. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative Clean Air Hamilton. Partners Government

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Hamilton, Ontario


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    1. RIDE YOUR BICYCLE UPWIND OUR TOXIC ADDICTION TOVEHICLES HAS SHORT-TERM AS WELL AS LONG-TERM EFFECTSMarch 10, 2008Municipal Equipment and Operations Association (Ontario)

    2. Hamilton, Ontario

    3. Sources B B

    4. The Hamilton Air Quality InitiativeClean Air Hamilton Partners Government Educational Institutions Industry Non-Government Organizations Associations Consultants

    5. Clean Air Hamilton Strategy Risk Management Approach Applied to Community Wide Actions • Identify Problem • Measure/Evaluate • Prioritize Risks • Inform Community • Cooperative Actions www.cleanair.hamilton.ca

    6. Good Intentions+Good Science+Good Process=Real Progress

    7. GROUP PROCESS 50% PROCESS + 50% CONTENT = ACHIEVEMENT Forming Storming Norming Performing (Reforming)

    8. Promulgation/Implementation Final Decision Suspended Doubt S.O.P Budget Policy Operational Doubt Organization Objectives Ethical Doubt Goals Assumptions Dreams Absolute Doubt Energy Cycle of Group Resurrection

    9. The Problem Health Impacts of Air Pollutants in Hamilton Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

    10. Health Impacts in Hamilton – by Air Pollutant Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

    11. Pyramid of Health Effects Severity of health Impact Premature Death Hospitalizations Adult Chronic Bronchitis Emergency room visits Bronchitis in Children Asthma Symptom Days Proportion of population affected

    12. Study Objectives“What are citizens actually exposed to and where is it coming from?” Study components • Using mobile monitoring techniques identify and rank sources, including transportation sources, of NOx, SO2, Airborne Particles and CO, (no direct local sources of Ozone). • Investigate the effect of idling vehicles at a designated school during student drop off and pickup times. • Investigate trackout/road dust issues

    13. Clean Air Hamilton, Mobile Monitoring Studies McMaster Dept. of Engineering Physics Dept. of Chemistry RotekEnvironmental City of Hamilton Ministry of Environment School of Geography and Earth Sciences Environment Canada

    14. National Pollutant Release Inventory

    15. National Pollutant Release Inventory, Hamilton e.g, PM10 Point Sources 56 Sources Total

    16. NPRI Sources

    17. Modifiers Emission - Dispersion - Accumulation - Removal

    18. National Pollutant Release InventoryTotal Point Source Emissions by Contaminant Tonnes

    19. What We’d Expect to See • Carbon Monoxide – 66% Transportation, 23% Industry • Sulphur Dioxide – 92% Industry, 5% Transportation • Nitrogen Oxides – 57% Transportation, 37% Industry • PM10 – 73% Open Sources/Road Dust, 18% Industry Note: MOE identified trackout/road dust resuspension as a major problem

    20. Emission Sources by Regions in Hamilton Flamborough/Waterdown NE Ind Stny Crk East Mtn

    21. Mobile Command Centre

    22. Monitoring Technology Dashboard-mounted Garmin 18 GPS head Sampling Intakes on Roof of Vehicle

    23. Mobile survey, HamiltonA/D Converter, Data Logger, GIS Software Garmin nRoute GIS software

    24. City/Traffic Monitoring • City Wide Sampling • Road Dust/Road Impacts • Intersection Impacts • Arterial Road Impact/ Burlington St. • Cycle Routes/ Anti Idling

    25. Sampling Track, CityWide Scan

    26. City Wide Sampling

    27. Residential Sample NO ppb Industry Wind

    28. PM10 ug/m3 Residential Sample Industry Wind

    29. Air Standards Oxides of Nitrogen - 300 ppb Sulphur Dioxide - 320 ppb Carbon Monoxide - 5 ppm PM 2.5 - 30 ug/m3 PM 10 (U.S.) - 150 ug/m3

    30. City Wide Sampling, Residential Locations

    31. Roads vs Residential Areas

    32. Stoplight Idling – Concentrations Downwind

    33. Burlington St. Upwind Downwind

    34. Burlington St Contribution (Approx. 600 Trucks/Hr)

    35. The Problem Health Impacts of Air Pollutants in Hamilton Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

    36. Traffic Exposure and Myocardial Infarction (Higher Impacts on Women and Over 60s) Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction, A. Peters et al, NEJM, Oct 21, 2004

    37. Level of Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and the Risk of Death from Cardiovascular Causes in Women Miller KA et al. N Engl J Med 2007;356:447-458

    38. CARS

    39. Vehicle Idling outside Schools“Natural Experiment”

    40. Natural Experiment ppb

    41. Morning – Idling Vehicles

    42. Monitoring Vehicle at School

    43. Afternoon – Vehicle Engines Off