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What is Engineering ? How does it differ from science?. iPod. Science: DESCRIBE EXPLAIN Parameters: θ, Ψ, ρ, σ 2 ,☺,λ, Ǻ, g, ћ, H 2 C 5 OH, . . . Starting salary: $37.5K (chemist). Engineering: INVENT DESIGN BUILD Parameters: $
How does it differ from science?
Parameters: θ, Ψ, ρ, σ2,☺,λ, Ǻ, g, ћ, H2C5OH, . . .
Starting salary: $37.5K (chemist)
Starting salary: $59.5K (chemical engineer)
Designing a fuel-efficient car
Building a house
“Don't let schooling interfere with your education”
Schools, in contrast to the rest of the world, focus on the acquisition of generalized learning. Schools aim to teach general skills and theoretical principles on the assumption that, once acquired, these skills can then be used in a wide variety of settings. However, studies of expert performance indicate that expertise does not come about primarily from the application of general skills, but involves the use of situationally specific, relevant knowledge. General skills have no actual use in the real world.
Lauren. B. Reznick (1987), The 1987 Presidential Address: Learning in School and Out
Synthesizing theory and knowledge in order to solve problems:
Not just theory out of context--the “what”. But also the “why”,
“when”, and under what conditions the theory may be invoked
to solve a problem.
Learning is also discovering what doesn’t work.
". . . a failed structure provides a counterexample to a hypothesis and shows us incontrovertibly what cannot be done, while a structure that stands without incident often conceals whatever lessons or caveats it might hold for the next generation of engineers."
Henri Petroski, To Engineer Is Human
Medical residency programs
Tutoring rather than lecturing!
Promoting self discovery!
Showing how to learn!
Problems “out of chapter”
Assignments that involve efficiency, cost, functionality, accuracy
Back-of-the-envelope problems: “Fermi questions”
Experiments to deduce underlying principles
Hands on--laboratories, virtual laboratories, projects
Written and oral presentation
1) Properties of materials
2) Materials laboratory
3) Theory of structures
4) Design a bridge to specification
5) Build it
6) Test it
Describe three entirely different (but practical) ways for determining the area of the darkened region to within 0.1%. Pick one. Then deduce the area (in cm2).
Would a different method give a more accurate result with less effort? Explain.
Might one method be better for rough estimates, another better for precise estimates. Explain.
Does the effectiveness of your methods depend on the shape of the figure? Explain.
1) Superpose a finely-spaced grid over the figure and count squares
2) Cut out the figure and weigh it. Then compare that weight to that of a piece of paper of known area. If the weight is too small to be measured with an available scale, transfer the figure to another piece of uniformly-dense material which is in the range of your scale.
3) Throw darts (figuratively, of course). Draw a rectangle (whose area can be calculated) which completely encloses the figure. Pick random points within the rectangle and count which ones fall within the darkened figure. The ratio of the number of those points within the darkened area to those within the entire rectangle can be used to estimate the darkened area. (Monte-Carlo integration.)
4) Divide the darkened figure into local regions which can be piecewise integrated numerically.
5) Use a “polar planimeter”—a gadget which mechanically integrates the area defined by a closed curve. (How does a planimeter work?)
6) Draw a rectangle on the darkened region of known area. Computer-scan the darkened figure. Write a program to count the number of pixels of the darkened color.Compare that number with those pixels within the rectangle.
7) Build a container whose cross-section is that of the darkened figure. Fill the container with 1000cc of water and measure the water level in the container.