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Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact. ANSC 3. Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet. WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING? AS.02.03: Identify technological advances in animal agriscience . AS.03: Identify breeds of economically important animal species.

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Unit map follow along in your packet
Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet


AS.02.03: Identify technological advances in animal agriscience.

AS.03: Identify breeds of economically important animal species.

AS.03.02: Recognize breed improvements and industry standards.

Know understand do
Know Understand Do!


Definition of industrial animal

Use of industrial animals

Environmental impacts of intensive farming


  • Outline general care of industrial animals

  • Describe slaughter regulations

  • Design regulatory processes for industrial farms incorporating environmental protection


  • Types of industrial animals

  • Processing procedures and regulations

  • Relationships between environment and farming processes

Key learning industrial farming and the environmental impact
Key Learning: Industrial Farming and the Environmental Impact

Unit EQ: How can consumers and farmers practice environmental stewardship?

Concept : Industrial Animals

Lesson EQ:

How are industrial animals defined?


Industrial Animal

Concept : Environmental Impacts

Lesson EQ:

What impact does industrial farming have on the planet?


Pollution, CAFO

Concept : Products and Processing

Lesson EQ:

What role do industrial animals play in society?



Contents Impact

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 1 Cattle (Beef and Dairy)

1. 2 Swine

1. 3 Poultry

2. Products and Processing

2.1Processing and Safety

2.2 Products and Packaging

2.3 Safety at home , Avoiding health risks

3. Environmental Impact

3.1 Cause 3.2 Effect 3.3 What’s being done?

Industrial animals and environmental impact1

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 1 Cattle (Beef and Dairy)

Warm up
Warm Up Impact

  • Which is Which?

Industrial animal defined
Industrial Animal Defined Impact

  • Any animal produced on a mass scale used for food, or food products.

  • Typically raised on a farm setting

    • Examples:

      • Cattle

      • Swine

      • Poultry

Cattle Impact



Natural bi products used to make food for human consumption

Normally go into hamburger meat once finished producing

  • Reared for their meat

  • Bi-products and solid muscle cuts utilized

Beef cattle breeds
Beef Cattle Breeds Impact

  • Typical Beef Cattle Breeds

    • Black Angus

    • Charolais

    • Hereford

    • Limousin

    • Simmental

Beef cattle basic requirements
Beef Cattle Basic Requirements Impact

  • Care:

    • Vaccines and antibiotics

    • Castration and Spaying (Females)

      • Determines meat quality and grade

    • A.I. and selective breeding

    • Polling / Dehorning

      • Safety of handlers and animal

  • Feed (depends on stage of life)

    • Forages

    • Pasture

    • Concentrated High Protein Grains

  • Housing

    • Fields, walk in stalls, feed lots

Beef cattle common diseases
Beef Cattle Common Diseases Impact

  • EBA

  • Trichomonosis

  • Pink eye

Activity break
Activity Break Impact

  • Beef Cattle Packet with Questions

  • Please work in GROUPS to answer the questions on the attached worksheet

  • EACH GROUP MEMBER must produce their own work and turn it into the bin once finished.

Dairy cattle common breeds
DAIRY Cattle Common Breeds Impact

  • Holstien

  • Guernsey

  • Brown Swiss

  • Jersey

  • Ayrshire

Dairy cattle care requirements
Dairy Cattle Care Requirements Impact

  • Care:

    • Vaccines and antibiotics

    • A.I. and selective breeding

    • Polling / Dehorning

      • Safety of handlers and animal

  • Feed (depends on stage of life)

    • Forages

    • Pasture

    • Concentrated High Protein Grains

  • Housing

    • Fields, walk in stalls

Dairy cattle common diseases
Dairy Cattle Common Diseases Impact

  • Dystocia

    • Difficulty calving

  • Prolapsed Uterus

    • Cow has pushed uterus outside body- “inside out”

  • Milk Fever

    • Hypocalcemia- low calcium in blood

Review activity dairy vs beef
Review Activity Dairy vs. Beef Impact

  • Make a Ven Diagram

  • Compare and Contrast

    • Care aspects

    • Health problems

    • Top producing states

  • Answer the following:

    • Why are care aspects the same, but health concerns different?

    • What geographical features or placement of the dairy states makes them “Good” for dairy but not for Beef? And Vice Versa? Why is a beef state not a dairy state?

Industrial animals and environmental impact2

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 2 Swine

Swine breeds
Swine Breeds Impact

Dark Breeds

White Breeds

used for their reproductive abilities such as mothering ability, litter size, and milking ability.

  • used for their production abilities such as meatiness, leanness, durability, growth rate, and feed efficiency.

Top breeds
Top Breeds Impact

Dark Breeds

White Breeds

Chester White



  • Berkshire

  • Duroc

  • Hampshire

  • Poland China

  • Spot

Swine care requirements
Swine Care Requirements Impact

  • Care

    • Pigs over heat easily

    • Vaccines, Dewormed, antibiotics

  • Feed

    • Concentrated grain

    • “Slop” on home farms

  • Housing

    • Wallows for cooling

    • Must be able to lie down

    • Farrowing crates

Common swine diseases
Common Swine Diseases Impact

  • Atrophic Rhinitis

    • Caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica, Destroys the nasal turbinates, Significantly affects growth rate and feed efficiency

  • E. Coli scours

    • Highly contagious disease, Mortality may be high, effect piglets

  • Leptospirosis

    • Causes both arthritis and pneumonia in growing-finishing pigs , Prevented by vaccination every 6 months

Activity break1
Activity Break Impact

  • Farrowing Crate Reading Parts one and two

    • Please answer the questions about Farrowing Crates

  • Farrowing Crate research part three

    • In groups, please research the questions on the second half of your paper.

Review activity
Review Activity Impact

  • Vocab!

    • Farrowing, Crate, Nest Box, Sow, Piglet, bedding, Overheat, Manure, Floor, Suckle

  • Make a Web!

  • Use each vocabulary word

  • Make connections between words with lines

  • On the lines, write a one sentence explanation of the relationship

Industrial animals and environmental impact3

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 3 Poultry

Warm up1
Warm Up Impact

  • How does this Become this?

Top poultry breeds
Top Poultry Breeds Impact

  • Broiler: White Plymouth Rock

  • Rhode Island Red: Dual Purpose

  • Single Comb White Leghorn: Table Egg Laying

  • Barred Plymouth Rock: Meat

  • Aracuana: Dual Purpose

Common care practices poultry
Common Care Practices Poultry Impact

  • Care

    • Vaccinations

    • Debeaking

    • Spur Trimming and Wing Clipping

  • Food

    • Grain based (corn and soybean)

    • High Energy

  • Housing

    • Temperature Controlled

    • Automated

    • Square foot per chicken

Common poultry diseases
Common Poultry Diseases Impact

  • Newcastle’s Disaease

    • Vaccinated in ovo

  • Merek’s Disease

    • Vaccinated in ovo

  • Avian Influenza

  • Infectious Bronchitis

    • Vaccinated via eye drops and body sprays

  • Salmonella

    • Competitive exclusion (remember Dr. X!?)

Activity break2
Activity Break Impact

  • CDC Overview Article with Questions

  • Research the latest Avian Influenza Outbreak

    • Who was effected? Did anyone die? How many?? Where did this happen? Where did contact occur? Why? How?

  • Extension

    • Why is this a concern? What seems to be the fear?

Bring it all together
Bring it all together Impact

  • Grab a US map

  • Make a key for each animal discussed and items below

    • Beef: orange

    • Dairy: purple

    • Poultry: yellow

    • Swine: red

  • Color their production states

  • Mountain Range Rivers/Water Deltas

On the back of your map
On the BACK of your Map Impact

  • Fill in the blanks

  • ________________ are mass produced in the state of ______________. The __________ waterway runs through this state and out to the ____________ ocean.

  • Make a 5 sentence prediction about what possible threats to animals (being produced), humans, and the environment are present along the waterway mentioned above. Include the state it is in, any states it passes through on the way to the ocean, and the area where it empties into the ocean.

Industrial animals and environmental impact4

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

2. Products and Processing

2. 1 Processing Procedures

Warm up2
Warm Up Impact

  • What stages go into making this?

Slaughter processes
Slaughter Processes Impact

  • Three Stages:

    • Preslaughter handling, stunning, slaughter

  • Humane Slaughter Act: required throughout processing

Preslaughter handling
Preslaughter Handling Impact

  • Major Concern

    • Especially in pork

  • Increased stress releases hormones and changes meat quality

  • Stress can be reduced by:

    • Not mixing groups of animals

    • Adequate ventilation

    • No overcrowding

    • No food 24-48 hours prior. Only water !

Stunning Impact

  • Restrained in a chute single file

  • Three methods

    • Electrical

      • Electricity passes through the brain

    • Mechanical

      • Pistol

    • Gasing

      • Carbon Dioxide

Slaughter Impact

  • Normally suspended by hind leg

  • Bled out (exsanguination)

    • Sever carotid artery and jugular vein.

  • Process varies by species

Slaughter cattle
Slaughter: Cattle Impact

  • Stunned mechanically

  • Feet removed

  • Hung by Achilles' tendon

  • Skinned mechanically

    • Salted and tanned for later use for leather

  • Head removed at the atlas joint

  • Evisceration (removal of insides)

    • kidney, pelvic, and heart fat left in grading.

  • Cold storage for 24 hours

Slaughter swine
Slaughter: Swine Impact

  • Stunned electrically or by gas

  • Hung by back legs

  • Exsanguination

  • Skin left on!

    • Scalding tank (145 degrees) loosens scurf (hair etc)

    • Dehairing machine

  • Head removed

  • Evisceration

    • Intestines saved for natural casing

Meat inspection
Meat Inspection Impact

  • Antemortem (BEFORE)

    • IDs animals not fit for human consumption

    • 4D animals

      • Down, Disabled, Diseased, Dead

      • Removed and labeled condemned

      • “Suspect” animals removed

  • Postmortem (AFTER)

    • head, viscera, and carcasses

    • IDs whole carcasses, individual parts, or organs not safe for human consumption.

Inspection during processing
Inspection During Processing Impact

  • Previously inspected meat is used in the preparation of processed meat products

  • Ingredients are added to processed meats.

  • Reinspection during processing assures safe ingredients are used in the manufacture of processed meat products (e.g., sausage and ham).

HSUS Impact

  • Humane Society of the United States

  • Established in 1954, The HSUS seeks a humane and sustainable world for all animals—a world that will also benefit people.

  • Video:

Think about it further
Think about it further Impact

  • Write a letter to a state official explaining the need for the HSUS. Cite an investigation and explain why the investigation was needed (in context of human safe food) Finally, write about why the government should be more supportive of the HSUS. What agency should support them and why?

    • You will need to research the various gov’t agencies (FBI, USDA, FDA, CDC) and include their missions as supportive evidence

      • Why do we need the HSUS?

      • DO we even need them?

      • Where should their reach end?

      • What should they be responsible for?

      • Who should help them ? (FBI? FDA? USDA?)

      • Why do you think these agencies are remaining partially separated from the HSUS?

Activity break3
Activity Break Impact

  • Design a flow chart, cartoon, or other type of manual explaining the slaughtering process in either cattle, swine, or poultry

Finished? Impact

  • Chapter book work

  • Blue Agriscience book Chapter 20

    • Define your vocabulary

    • Perform the discussion questions only please.

Industrial animals and environmental impact5

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

2. Products and Processing

2. 1 Products, Sanitation, and Packaging

Beef processing
Beef Processing Impact

  • Whole sale cuts: Primal cuts

    • chuck, loin, rib and round

  • Retail cuts: what you buy at the store

    • most expensive usually come from the loin area

    • chops and steaks such as the T Bone

  • Trimming

    • are made into sausage or ground meat

Beef processing grading
Beef Processing: Grading Impact

  • Meat in freezer is graded according to USDA standards

    • Performed by AMS (Ag Marketing Service)

    • federal meat grading was established in 1925

  • Grades (2 types): certifies class, quality and condition with uniform standards

    • are determined by the age of the animal amount of fat intermingled with the muscle

    • Quality: prediction of the eating quality (palatability)

    • Yield: indicate expected yield of edible meat

Grade levels
Grade Levels Impact

Quality Grade Levels

Yield Grade Levels

estimate of the percentage of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts that come from the major lean primal cuts

1 over 52.3 % lean primal cuts

2 50 - 52.3%

3 47.7-50.0

4 45.4-47.7%

5 less than 45.4%

  • prime

  • choice

  • select

  • standard

  • commercial

  • utility

  • cutter

  • canner

Grading continued
Grading Continued… Impact



Fat= Marbling

specks of white in meat

More specks= higher grade

Prime=highest level of marbling

Skinny animals are cheaper to grow therefore the meat is cheaper than heavier animals

  • maturity of the cartilage and bones

    • Cartilage -> bone

  • Inspecting rib cage and vertebrae for the degree of bone and cartilage hardening - ossification

  • Animals older than about 42 months cannot receive the highest two grades

    • Young=Tender

Safety during processing
Safety During Processing Impact

  • Major Players

    • USDA : helps set standards

    • HACCP processes

      • A food safety and self-inspection system that highlights potentially hazardous foods and how they are handled in the food service environment.

Let s take a look
Let’s Take A Look Impact

  • Analyzing the a Beef HACCP Plan

    • HACCP 13 pages 29-35

    • Read/Write/Trade

  • Fill in your graphic organizer

  • Answer the summary questions rally robin with a partner

Activity graphic organizer and q s
Activity Graphic Organizer and Q’s Impact

  • Answer the following after completing your graphic organizer for Beef, Swine, Poultry

    • What is the most hazardous processing point for all 3 animals?

    • What is the most common threat? What affect does this have on Human health? Explain

    • What is the most common prevention (safety) method and how does it work? Explain

Watch a river of waste


River of waste video summary essay
River of Waste Video Summary Essay Impact

  • One: Introduction

    • Video based general summary, include definition of CAFO and why they are used

  • Two: Specifics

    • Discuss a specific geographical area in the US that is having a problem. Discuss the problem, its implication on human and environmental health and the source of the problem

  • Three: Discuss America’s Report Card

    • What were the grading areas, What are the sources of the problems

  • Four: What are other countries doing?

    • List 3 specific ideas discussed in the video that other countries are implementing to prevent the problems faced in the US

  • Five: Conclusion

    • Reflect about the video and your thoughts about the US, other countries, and living in Delaware (include information about animal production in Delaware and possible health risks

  • Works Cited Page: APA Style 5 Sources 2 Scholarly (use google scholar to search)

Beef processing video
Beef Processing Video Impact

  • 40 mins

  • Discussion to follow

Industrial animals and environmental impact6

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

2. Products and Processing

2. 1 Products, Sanitation, and Packaging

Haccp plans swine and poultry
HACCP Plans Swine and Poultry Impact

  • Design a foldable/ graphic organizer that outlines the following:

    • Where in the slaughter process hazards occur?

    • What type of hazard is present

    • What is the hazard

    • How is it monitored/ prevented/ controlled?

Industrial animals and environmental impact7

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

2. Products and Processing

2.2 Products and Packaging

Flip ables

  • Grab 2 copies of each worksheet.

  • Cut out the “cuts of meat” on one worksheet. Leave the other one solid.

  • Put the CUT paper on top of the regular paper

    • On the FLIPS include what cuts of meat come from that area on the animal

    • Beef

    • Swine

    • Poultry

Packaging in the meat dept
Packaging in the Meat Dept Impact

Fresh: uncured, uncooked, not frozen

a. distribution

  • good oxygen barrier

  • good water barrier

  • sealable

  • thermoforms (heat shrink) to reduce purge and adjust to size

  • puncture, tear resistant

  • EVA/PVDC/EVA – typical

  • b. retail

    • highly oxygen permeable…or impermeable with CO

  • good water barrier

  • sealable

  • clear, glossy

  • tamper, handling resistant

  • PVC typical

  • Packaging contin
    Packaging Contin… Impact

    • 2. fresh, cooked-packaged after cooked, slicing

      • good barrier for both oxygen and water --- some may include aluminum foil and may include oxygen absorbers --- to prevent WOF and rancid flavors

      • nylon/PVDC/nylon/EVA typical

        “Cook-in” films

        • good barrier as above

        • adhesion properties for product surface to prevent cook purge

        • Surlyn ionomers typical

    Packaging contin1
    Packaging Contin… Impact

    • 3. fresh, frozen (i.e. poultry)

      • good oxygen barrier, medium water barrier at freezer temperature

      • shrinkable (prevent frost-recrystallization)

      • PE is typical

    • 4. cured, cooked

      • good barrier to oxygen and water

      • sealable and resealable

      • thermoformable

      • puncture, tear, tamper resistant

      • clear, glossy

      • nylon/PVDC/PE typical

    What are the trends
    What are the trends? Impact

    • Review packaging methods discussion

    Industrial animals and environmental impact8

    Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

    2. Products and Processing

    2.3 Safety at Home, Avoiding Health Risks

    Dr x modules recap
    Dr. X Modules Recap Impact

    • After viewing the Dr. X Video in its entirety, please answer the following;

      • What is a pathogen and why are they so dangerous?

      • Where do most “problems” arise within the home?

      • Give 4 ways to help prevent the spread of disease to humans from animal products

      • Explain how the nature of Bacteria / Virus help us to “beat” them. Now contrast how the same characteristic can cause us to fail leading to epidemic illness

    Industrial animals and environmental impact9

    Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact Impact

    3. Environmental Impact

    Stage One: Introduction to the Problem

    Step one intro and prologue
    Step One : Intro and Prologue Impact

    • Break into 6 groups of 3

    • Half of groups take a prologue and half of groups take an introduction


      • What is the book about?

      • Who are the main characters?

      • What are the problems discussed?

      • How are the main characters connected to the problems?

      • Where are the problems occurring?

      • Why are the problems so serious?

      • For each problem predict a solution that might be proposed later in the reading.

    Group readings
    Group Readings Impact

    • Get into 3 groups

      • Each will receive a reading excerpt from Animal Factory

        • (grab a book for extra reading supplies from the shelf)

      • Please read together by paragraphs then switch reading ROUND ROBIN

        • WHILE YOU READ be prepared to answer the following to share with the class

          • What is your animal? Where does this story take place? Who are the main characters and what role are they playing your story? Who seems to be the “bad guy” or the problem starter? What is the main PROBLEM? Is there any hints about what they must do to change their situation?

    Where is the problem
    Where is the Problem? Impact

    • After reading, please use the internet or other sources as a group to answer the following

      • Where is the “problem”

      • What geographical features make this a more serious issue?

      • What is the impact the problem is having on the environment?

      • Is this still (currently) an issue in that area?

    Further research
    Further Research Impact

    • Using the internet as a group find the following:

      • What group is utilized to help solve the issue from your reading?

        • Provide mission statement / purpose and be ready to show us their website in class

      • Why do they feel they needed to organize to help solve the issue?

      • What was a major break through for your organization concerning combating the problem from your reading?

      • What is the current status, or current project your organization is working on?

    Unit review
    Unit Review Impact


    • What are top producing states for beef, swine, and poultry?

    • What are common care practices for ALL industrial animals?

    • List the stages of processing for cattle, swine, poultry

    • List 3 products made from each animal discussed in class

    • What are health hazards concerning food AT HOME? How do we combat these in our homes?

    • Generally explain the categories of products made and how they are packaged

    • Explain the 3 issues discussed in Animal Factory

      • Where were they? What animals? What was the problems? Why were these “problems”?