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6.3 & 6.4 Causes of the Revolution What were the causes of the American Revolution?
Key Terms • Tea Act • East India Tea Company • Smuggling • Committees of Correspondence • Boston Tea Party • Sons of Liberty • Samuel Adams • Benjamin Franklin • Coercive or Intolerable Acts • First Continental Congress • Patrick Henry • Lexington & Concord • Second Continental Congress • Fort Ticonderoga • Washington • Bunker Hill • Charles Town • Olive Branch Petition • Benedict Arnold
The Tea Act • The boycott works again! • Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in April 1770, but left the tax on tea to show it was still in charge • Colonists are angered at the remaining tax • Drank smuggled tea from Holland • Many British tea companies lost money
1773 Tea Act • Gave a monopoly (total control over the market) to the East India Tea Company • The company had the exclusive right to sell tea to the colonists • The act lowered the price of tea in the colonies, restricted colonists from acting as shippers and merchants • See the act as another attempt to interfere in the colonial economy • Choose to still purchase smuggled tea
Committees of Correspondence • Organized to unite the colonies by keeping them informed, spreading news on colonial affairs and resistance to British policy, to neighboring towns and colonial leaders • Organized in Boston and spread throughout the colonies
Boston Tea Party • December 16, 1773 • Organized by the Sons of Liberty and led by Samuel Adams • Dressed as American Indians, Boarded three ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor • British officials angry at the destruction of property! • Some colonial officials, such as Benjamin Franklin weren’t thrilled with the destruction and offer to pay for the tea if Parliament would repeal the hated Tea Act. • Refused!
Coercive or Intolerable Acts • In reaction to the Boston Tea Party • Closed the port of Boston until colonist paid for the destroyed tea • Banned town meetings • Repealed the elected council with an appointed one • Increased the governor’s power over the colonists • Protected British officials accused of crimes in the colonies from being tried by colonists • Allowed British officers to house troops in private dwellings • General Thomas Gage was appointed to enforce the acts
First Continental Congress • September 1774 delegates from the colonies, except Georgia, met • Voted to ban all trade with Great Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealed • Called on each colony to begin training troops
Patrick Henry • “Give me Liberty or Give me Death!” • Virginia House of Burgesses, 1774
Lexington • “Minute Men” refused to disperse and shots were fired killing 8 Americans, wounding many more • “Lexington Massacre” • Redcoats pushed to Concord, but forced to retreat back to Boston due to the minutemen, suffering hundreds of casualties • THESE WERE THE FIRST SHOTS OF THE REVOLUTION!
The Siege of Boston • After Lexington and Concord, 15,000 militia from all over New England surround Boston
Fort Ticonderoga • Plan: Capture the British fort, Fort Ticonderoga • May 10, 1775: Ethan Allen led his backwoods fighters “Green Mountain Boys” to capture the fort and its artillery • The Second Continental Congress met in Philly one month after Lexington and Concord
Second Continental Congress • There was no real sentiment for independence at the time! • Hoped the fighting would force the King and Parliament to address the concerns and complaints of the colonists!
America’s government during the War Delegates: John Adams, Sam Adams, Ben Franklin, George Washington, Patrick Henry Second Continental Congress
Measures Adopted • Raise $$$ • Create an army and navy • Washington chosen to lead the fight
George Washington • Washington was chosen as commanding general and serves without pay during the war
George Washington • Tall, powerfully built, dignified, blue-eyed • Leadership skills and strength in character • Great moral leader: People trusted him! • Virginia planter: from the largest and most populous colony • Wealthy from inheritance and marriage
Battle of Bunker Hill • Boston, June 1775 Militiamen at Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill • British decide to attack • General Howe crossed the bay with 2,200 soldiers and set Charlestown on fire • Climb Breed’s Hill toward the Americans
Bunker Hill • The British attack and climb the hill towards the Americans • Colonel William Prescott “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes!” • British fell back, charged again and took the hill • Redcoats win the battle, BUT lose 1,000 killed or wounded • Colonials had held there own against the most powerful army in the world!
Olive Branch Petition • Last ditch effort for peace • Congress drafts the petition stating their loyalty to King George III and asks for peace • Announced new measures • British would blockade American ports, prevent their ships from leaving • Would send thousands of Hessians, paid German soldiers to fight
Soldiers • British: Well-trained and equipped • Americans: Little training, poorly equipped, little gunpowder
Canada • Summer 1775, Washington arrives at a militia camp near Boston • He approves a plan to invade Canada at Quebec • Hoped to draw Canadians into the cause • Benedict Arnold: One of the leaders & an officer who played a major role at Ticonderoga • Fails
British Retreat From Boston • Cannons were being hauled from Fort Ticonderoga • General Henry Knox led the troops and artillery to Boston • Cannons were positioned overlooking Boston • Americans threaten to bombard • Howe retreats March 17 with over 7,000 British troops in more than 100 ships