Chapter 10 3RD CONJUGATION –IO VERBS THIRD DECLENSION ADJECTIVES SUBSTANTIVE ADJECTIVES
3RD DECLENSION ADJECTIVES • So far we have learned 1st and 2nd declension adjectives: • “-us-a-um” • “-er” 1st and 2nd declension adjectives • There are only three declensions of adjectives.
3rd DECELENSION ADJECTIVS • There are three different types of 3rd declension adjectives: • 1 termination (1 word for the nominative singular for all three genders) e.g. felix, felicis • 2 terminations (one word for the M/F in the nominative singular and one word or ending for the N nominative singular) e.g. fortis (m/f), forte (n) • 3 terminations- ( one word for each gender in the nominative singular) e.g. acer (m), acris (f), acre (n) • Terminus = ending
TERMINATIONS • A 3 termination 3rd declension adjective is the easiest to recognize. In the vocabulary there are three different forms of the adjectives. • E.g. acer, acris, acre • Remember that terminations only refer to the nominative singular forms! All other forms are declined just like all M/F/N 3rd declension nouns.
1and 2 TERMINATIONS • To determine the difference between a 1 and 2 termination adjective, observe the following pattern: • 1 termination- felix, felicis • 2 termination- fortis, forte • 1 termination- genitive singular form is 2nd • 2 termination- genitive singular form is 1st • A third declension adjective is recognized by the genitive singular ending is. • For 2 terminations, the genitive singular ending is also the nominative singular ending for the M/F forms.
3rd CONJUGATION –IO VERBS • Capio, capere, cepi, captum- to take, seize • Conjugation just like 4th conjugation verbs. • The iis a part of the stem when the –o is removed. • Therefore, there is no need to add a linking vowel. • However, there are still the irregular linking vowels that all 3rd conjugations have (the additional u linking vowel in the 3rd person plural active/passive and the e linking vowel instead of the iin the 2nd person singular in the passive).
Substantive Adjectives • A substantive adjective is an adjective which is being used as a noun. • A substantive adjective is easily recognized by seeing that the adjective modifies no other noun in the sentence. • The noun with which you choose to supplement with the adjective in translation depends upon that adjective’s gender. These adjectives are still of course translated with their case and number.
Substantive Adjectives • E.g. • Bonimalas non amant. • The good men do not like the bad girls. • Mala et Troianisfunesta a militibusGraecis in equooccultatisparantur. • Bad things and deadly things are prepared for the Trojans by the Greek soldiers hidden in the horse. • N.B. The neuter substantive is the MOST COMMON. It translates as “thing/things”.
Substantive Adjectives • Pg. 173 Ex. 6 • HW= Ex. 1 and 2