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Mutations and Gene Regulation. Chapter 12 Sections 4-5. Kinds of Mutations. Gene mutations Frameshift mutations-the remaining codons of the protein have been affected. Insertion (a letter has been added) Deletion (A letter has been removed) Point mutations-one or a few nucleotides involved

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mutations and gene regulation

Mutations and Gene Regulation

Chapter 12 Sections 4-5

kinds of mutations
Kinds of Mutations
  • Gene mutations
    • Frameshift mutations-the remaining codons of the protein have been affected.
      • Insertion (a letter has been added)
      • Deletion (A letter has been removed)
    • Point mutations-one or a few nucleotides involved
      • Substitutions (One letter is wrong, everything is still in place.)
mutations cont
Mutations cont…
  • Chromosomal
    • Changes in the number or structure of chromosomes.
      • Most are harmful to the organism
      • Some are beneficial
        • Polyploidy is when the chromosomes don’t separate properly during meiosis. The result is an offspring with 3N or 4N(extra sets of chromosomes)
          • This can create a larger, stronger plant.
gene regulation
Gene Regulation
  • RNA polymerase binds to a “promoter” only when beginning.
  • The RNA polymerase will continue through sets of genes that operate together called “operons”
    • In bacteria- the presence or absence of chemicals cause “feedback” which turns genes on or off.
eukaryotic gene regulation
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation
  • Most eukaryotic genes are controlled individually and have regulatory sequences that are much more complicated than simple operons.
  • Why?
slide6
Why?
  • Prokaryotic cells express all genes. (unicellular)
  • Most eukaryotic cells express only part of the genome to cause differentiation. (multicellular)
  • Differentiation is when cells grow differently to perform different functions, such as blood cells, bone cells, or nerve cells.
  • Differentiation is controlled by the hox genes.
introns and exons
Introns and Exons
  • Introns are sections of “Junk DNA” found in the genome that do not code for any proteins
  • Exons are the portion of DNA that actually code for a protein. They are “EX”pressed.